Systemic hemodynamics in sustained essential and reno-vascular hypertension

  • Michel E. Safar
  • Gérard M. London
  • Yves A. Weiss
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 98)


Before investigating the control of cardiac output in human hypertension, it is important to analyze the mean value of this parameter in different forms of hypertensive vascular disease. This is a difficult problem, due to the paucity of data in the literature [1–8]. This chapter will limit itself to patients with chronic, sustained, uncomplicated essential or reno-vascular hypertension [7]. ‘Chronic’ implies that the duration of the disease is over three years, in patients aged between 20 and 60 years. ‘Sustained’ implies that the ambulatory diastolic pressure is consistantly greater than 100 mmHg or that the diastolic pressure is above 90 mmHg on the third day of hospitalization. ‘Essential’ implies that plasma and urinary electrolytes, urinary catecholamines and timed intravenous pyelography are constantly within normal limits. ‘Uncomplicated’ means that there is no history of stroke, congestive heart failure or any vascular complication, and that plasma creatinine is less than 1.4 mg%. ‘Reno vascular’ means that uni- or bilateral stenosis of the renal artery has been diagnosed on the basis of arteriographic findings and that the diagnosis has been confirmed by significant blood pressure reduction after surgery [3].


Cardiac Output Blood Volume Essential Hypertension Central Venous Pressure Hypertensive Heart Disease 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel E. Safar
  • Gérard M. London
  • Yves A. Weiss

There are no affiliations available

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