Horizontal and Vertical Geodetic Datums

  • Ivan I. Mueller
  • Richard H. Rapp
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 154)


In conventional geodetic systems, locations of points on the surface of the earth may be defined either by means of natural (astronomic) or geometric (geodetic) coordinates. The natural coordinates, the astronomic latitude (Φ), longitude (Λ), and the orthometric (mean sea level height (H), being gravity dependent, are conventionally referenced to the geoid and are determined from “natural” observations (astronomic, gravimetric and spirit leveling). The geometric coordinates, the geodetic latitude (ϕ), longitude (λ) and height (h), are referenced to a (generally) rotational ellipsoid of arbitrary size, shape and orientation, and are determined from geometric (length and/or direction) observations.


Tide Gauge Equipotential Surface Vertical Data Reference Ellipsoid Geoid Undulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan I. Mueller
    • 1
  • Richard H. Rapp
    • 1
  1. 1.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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