Multiple Shell Planetary Nebulae

  • You-Hua Chu
Part of the International Astronomical Union / Union Astronomique Internationale book series (IAUS, volume 131)


It has been shown in several independent investigations that the multiple-shell phenomenon is prevalent in planetary nebulae. Despite the common classification, the multiple shell planetary nebulae are a heterogeneous group of objects, as testified by the wide variety of their morphologies and physical structures. There are two types of double-shell structures that are seen frequently: one has an inner shell expanding supersonically into a faint, subsonically expanding halo, and the other has a bright attached envelope co-expanding with the inner shell. The physical structures and relative elemental abundances in the shells are reviewed, and their possible formation mechanisms are discussed.


Outer Shell Surface Brightness Internal Motion Expansion Velocity Planetary Nebula 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© International Astronomical Union 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • You-Hua Chu
    • 1
  1. 1.Astronomy DepartmentUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

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