Biological Monitoring of Lead Exposure in Children: Overview of Selected Biokinetic and Toxicological Issues

  • P. Mushak


The biological monitoring of lead exposure in paediatric and adult human populations has usually involved one of two approaches: (1) measurement of the internal or systemic dose of lead itself in some indicator medium, or (2) quantification of some ‘subcritical’ effect of lead. The extent to which biological monitoring in humans accurately states both exposure risk and relative health risk remains the subject of much research. Of particular interest are (1) the biokinetic characteristics of the common indicators of exposure, (2) the development and use of kinetic models of lead metabolism, and (3) the relative merits of the use of biological effect indicators versus measurement of the toxicant in some medium.


Lead Level Lead Exposure Biological Indicator Biological Monitoring Blood Lead Concentration 
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© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels — Luxembourg; EPA, USA 1989

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  • P. Mushak

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