Biological Monitoring of Lead Exposure in Children: Overview of Selected Biokinetic and Toxicological Issues
The biological monitoring of lead exposure in paediatric and adult human populations has usually involved one of two approaches: (1) measurement of the internal or systemic dose of lead itself in some indicator medium, or (2) quantification of some ‘subcritical’ effect of lead. The extent to which biological monitoring in humans accurately states both exposure risk and relative health risk remains the subject of much research. Of particular interest are (1) the biokinetic characteristics of the common indicators of exposure, (2) the development and use of kinetic models of lead metabolism, and (3) the relative merits of the use of biological effect indicators versus measurement of the toxicant in some medium.
KeywordsLead Level Lead Exposure Biological Indicator Biological Monitoring Blood Lead Concentration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chamberlain, A.C., Heard, M.J., Newton, D., Wells, A.C. and Wiffen, R.D. (1978) Investigations into Lead from Motor Vehicles. AERE Report 9198 (London: HMSO)Google Scholar
- Fischbein, A., Thornton, J., Blumberg, W.E., Bernstein, J., Valciukas, J.A., Moses, M., Davidow, B., Kaul, B., Sirstas, M. and Selikoff, I.J. (1980) Health status of cable splicers with low-level exposure to lead: results of a clinical survey. Am. J. Public Health, 70, 697–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grandjean, P., Hansen, O.N. and Lyngbye, G. (1984) Analysis of lead in circumpulpal dentine of deciduous teeth. Ann. Clin. Iah. Sci, 14, 270–275Google Scholar
- Griffin, T.B., Coulston, F., Wills, H., Russell, J.C. and Knelson, J.H. (1975) Clinical studies on men continuously exposed to airborne particulate lead, in Griffin, T.B. and Knelson, J.H. (eds), Lead (New York: Academic Press)Google Scholar
- Harley, N.H. and Kneip, T.H. (1984) An Integrated Metabolic Model for Lead in Humans of All Ages. Final Report to the US Environmental Protection Agency: Contract No. B44899 with New York University School of Medicine, 30 December, 1984Google Scholar
- Marlowe, M. and Errrera, J. (1982) Low lead levels and behaviour problems in children. Behav. Disorders, 7, 163–172Google Scholar
- Smith, M., Delves, T., Lansdown, R., Clayton, B. and Graham, P. (1983) The effects of lead exposure on urban children: The Institute of Child Health/Southampton study. Dev. Med. Child Neurol, 25 (Suppl. 47), 1–54Google Scholar
- US Centers for Disease Control (1985) Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A statement by the Centers for Disease Control — January 1985. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency (1977) Air Quality Criteria for Lead. Criteria and Special Studies Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA Report No. EPA-600/8-77-017, DecemberGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (1977) Environmental Health Criteria, 3 (Geneva, Switzerland)Google Scholar