The landscape of urban areas is in a dynamic state because it is subjected to cycles of man-induced change associated with redevelopment. In the past these were relatively long compared to a human life span but recently the rate and scale of redevelopment have speeded up to such an extent that buildings are constructed to last no longer than 50–60 years. Ecologists are used to studying ecosystems that change with time, particularly when catastrophic events are involved, so the concepts of plant succession can be extended to cover this phenomenon.
KeywordsMature Tree Vegetation Dynamic Development Cycle Vascular Cambium Open Cast Mining
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