Rivers, Canals, Ponds, Lakes, Reservoirs and Water Mains
Urban water provides some elegant examples of how man, by carrying out his normal day-to-day activities and making himself comfortable in his environment, can comprehensively alter an ecosystem. As usual, certain species are eliminated by urban influences, others are strongly favoured by them while a few groups appear unaffected. Hydrologists are able to provide a broad picture of the physical and chemical aspects of water flow in urban areas (Douglas, 1983; Hall, 1984; Lazro, 1979), but there are only patchy biological data to complement this. Reviews of urban aquatic ecosystems are provided by Hynes (1960) and Whitton (1984), while at a natural history level Teagle (1978) and Kelcey (1985) have collected a certain amount of information. Given the ‘state of the art’, a fully integrated treatment of this habitat is not possible, so the general principles of urban hydrology will be outlined followed by a range of examples which illustrate the special ecological relationships that characterize urban rivers, canals, lakes, ponds, reservoirs and water mains.
KeywordsZebra Mussel Biological Oxygen Demand Water Main Urban River Potamogeton Pectinatus
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