Advertisement

Invasive treatment of acute stroke

  • C. Fieschi
  • D. Toni
  • M. Sacchetti
  • P. Pantano
  • E. Millefiorini
  • M. Frontoni

Abstract

Data pertaining the population of Rochester (Minnesota) in the early eighties [1] are consistent with the end of the decline of stroke which was recorded in that area from 19–15 to 1974 [2]. However, the survival up to three days and the 30-day death of patients with cerebral infarction have never significantly decreased over the past four decades [3]. Therefore, stroke prevention, which appeared so effective until a few years ago, seems currently to have reached its limits, whereas available guidelines to treatment of acute brain ischemia are still needed now, as they were forty years ago.

Keywords

Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Registry Acute Brain Ischemia Early Angiography Intracranial Occlusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Broderick, JP, Phillips, SJ, Whisnant, JP, O’Fallon, WM, Bergstral, EJ. (1989) “Incidence rate of stroke in the eighties: the end of the decline of stroke?” Stroke 20, 577–588.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garraway, WM, Whisnant, JP, Furlan, AJ, Phillips, LH, Kurland, LT, O’Fallon, WM. (1979) “The declining incidence of stroke”, New Engl J Med 300, 499–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garraway, WM, Whisnant, JP, Drury, I. (1983) “The changing pattern of survival following stroke”, Stroke 14, 699–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caplan, LR, Stein, RW. (1986) “Stroke. A clinical approach”, Butterworths publisher.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weinstein, PR, Anderson, GG, Teiles, DA. (1980) “Neurological deficit and cerebral infarction after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in unanesthetized cats”, Stroke 17, 318–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lenzi, GLL, Frackowiack, RSJ, Jones, T. (1982) “Cerebral oxygen metabo1ism and blood f1ow in human cerebr a1 isohemic infarction”, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2, 321–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vorstrup, S, Paulson, OB, Lassen, N. (1986) “Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using Xenon-33 inhalation tomography”. Acta Neurol Scand 74, 439–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lenzi, GLL, Frackowiack, RSJ, Jones, T, Heather, JD, Lammertsma AA, Rhodes, CG, Pozzilli, C (1981) “CMR02 and CBF by 0xygen-15 inha1ation technique: resu1ts in normal volunteers and cerebrovascular patients”, Europ Neurol 20, 285–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bozzao, L, Fantozzi, LM, Bastianello, S, Bozzao, A, Fieschi, C. (1989) “Early collateral blood supply and late parenchymal brain damage in pallents with middle cersbral artery occlusion”, Stroke 20, 735–740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fieschi, C, Argentino, C, Lenzi, G L, Sacchet, ML., Tom, D., Bozzao, L. (. 1989 ) “Clinical and instrumental evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke within the first six hours” J Neurol Sci 91, 311–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holmes, RA, Chaplin, SB, Rayston, FG et al (1985) “Cerebral uptake and retention of Tc-99m hexamethilpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HM-PAO)”., Nucl. Med. Commun 6, 443–447.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dalal, PM, (1965) “Angiographic observation on spontaneous clot lysis”, Lancet 1, 61–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gurdjian, ES, Lindner, DW, Hardy, WG, Thomas, LM, (1961) “Completed stroke due to occlusive cerebrovascular disease. An analysis of 409 cases”, Neurology (Minn.) 11, 724–733.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohr, JP, Caplan, LR, Melski, JW, Goldstein, RJ, Duncan, GW. Kistler, JP, Pessin, MS, Blech, HI. (1978) “The Harvard Cooperative Stroke Registry: a prospective registry”, Neurology 28, 574–762.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fisher, M. (1954) “Occlusion of the carotid arteries. Further experiences”, Arch Neurol Psychiat 72, 187–204.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sloan, MA. (1987) “Thrombolysis and stroke. Past and future”, Arch Neurol 44, 748–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The TPA-Acute Stroke Study Group. (1988) “An open multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of various doses of r-TPA in patients with acute stroke: preliminary results”, Stroke 19, 9.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    GISSI. (1987) “Long-term effects of intravenous thrombolysis in acute myocardial, infarction: final report”, Lancet 1, 871–874.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mohamed, AA, Gotoh, O, Graham, DI, Osborne, KA, McCulloch, J, Mendelow, AD, Teasdale GM, Harper MH. (1985) “Effect of pretreament with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow and histopathology after middle cerebral artery occlusion”, Ann Neurol 18, 705–711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gelmers, HJ, Gorter, K, De Weerdt, CJ, Wiezer, HJA. (1988) “A controlled trial of nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke”, N Engl J Med 318, 203–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pozzilli, C, Di Piero, V, Pantano, P, Rasura, M., Lenzi, GL. (1981) “Inf1uence of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow in human cerebral ischaemia”, J Neurol 236, 199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Siesjo, BK. (1981) “Cell damage in the brain. A speculative synthesis”, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1, 155–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuwaki, T, Satoh, H, Ono, T, Shibayama, F, Yamashita, T, Nishimura, T. (1989) “Nilvadipine attenuates ischemic degration of gerbil brain cytoscheletal proteins”, Stroke 20, 78–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nakayama, H, Ginsberg, MD, Dietrich, WD, (1988) “(S)-Emopamil, a novel calcium channel blocker and serotonin S2 antagonist, markedly reduces infarct size following middle cerebral artery occasion in the rat”, Neuro1ogy 38, 1667–1673.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rothmans, SM, Olney, JW. (1987) “Excitotoxicity and the NMDA receptor”, TINS 10, 299–302.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Astrup, J. (1982) “Energy-requiring cell functions in the ischemic brain”, J Neurosurg 56, 482–497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davis, CW, Daly, JW. (1980) “Activation of rat cerebral cortical 3′, 5′-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity by ganglosides”, Mol Pharmacol 17, 206–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greenberg, JH, Reivich, M,Urfoanics, R, Tanaka, K, Dora, E, Toffano, G. (1986) “The effect of GM1 on cerebral metabolism, microcirculation and histology in focal ischemia”, in Tettamanti, G et al. (eds.), Gangliosides and neuronal plasticity, Liviana Press, Padova, pp. 397–405.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freed, WJ, De Medinaceli, L, Wyatt, RJ. (1985) “Promoting functional plasticity in the damaged nervous system”, Science 227, 1544–1552.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Doherty, P, Dickson, JG, Flanigan, TP, Walsh, FS. (1985) “Ganglioside GM1 does not initiate but enhances neurite regeneration of nerve growth factor-dependent sensory neurones”, J Neurochem 44, 1259–1265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Fieschi
    • 1
  • D. Toni
    • 1
  • M. Sacchetti
    • 1
  • P. Pantano
    • 1
  • E. Millefiorini
    • 1
  • M. Frontoni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosciencesUniversity of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations