The vegetative nervous system and atrial natriuretic factor

  • F. Fontana
  • P. Bernardi


The vegetative nervous system (VNS) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) are linked in various ways: 1) the VNS affects ANF release; 2) ANF changes some VNS activities and 3) the VNS influences the effects of ANF. These functional relationships have been confirmed by literature reports. Our studies on the effects of Dopamine infusion on ANF and noradrenaline (NA) plasma levels in healthy subjects and in congestive heart failure patients suggested that NA may be involved in ANF release. In diseases characterized by an increase in sympathetic tone we found that hypersympathicotonia does not appear to modify plasma ANF levels if central venous pressure (CVP) is normal as in hypovolemic shock due to melena. On the other hand, in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during bradycardia and hypotension syndrome characterized by an increase in parasympathetic tone we observed normal ANF and CVP values; this suggests that hypervagotonia curbs peptide secretion because ANF release is usually high during AMI.


Acute Myocardial Infarction Central Venous Pressure Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Atrial Natriuretic Factor Hypovolemic Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Pettersson, A., Ricksten, S.E., Towle, A.C., Hedner, J. and Hedner, T. (1985) ‘Effect of blood volume expansion and sympathetic denervation on plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the rat’, Acta Physiol. Scand. 124, 309–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    Haass, M., Zukowska-Grojec, Z., Kopin, I.J. and Zamr, N. (1987) ‘Role of autonomic nervous system and vasoactive hormones in the release of atrial natriuretic peptides in conscious rats’, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10, 424–432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Nguyen, P.V., Smith, D.L. and Leenen, F.H.H. (1988) ‘Acute volume loading, atrial natriuretic peptide release and cardiac function in healthy men. Effects of beta- blockade’, Life Sci. 43, 821–830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Sonnenberg, H. and Veress, A.T. (1984) ‘Cellular mechanism of release of atrial natriuretic factor’, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 124, 443–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Currie, M.G. and Newman, W.H. (1986) ‘Evidence for α-1 adrenergic receptor regulation of atriopeptin release from the isolated rat heart’, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 137, 94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Wong, N.L.M., Wong, E.F.C., Au, G.H. and Hu, D.C.K. (1988) ‘Effect of α- and β- adrenergic stimulation on atrial natriuretic peptide release in vitro’, Am. J. Physiol. 255, E260–E264.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Rankin, A.J., Wilson, N. and Ledsome, J.R. (1987) ‘Influence of isoproterenol on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and plasma vasopressin in the anesthetized rabbit’, Pflugers Arch. 408, 124–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Tsai, R., Yamaji, T., Ishibashi, M., Takaku, F., Hsu, S., Lai, C., Yeh, S., Hung, J., Wu, D. and Lee, Y. (1988) ‘Effect of β-adrenergic blockade on plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide during exercise in humans’, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 11, 614–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9).
    Haufe, M.C., Weil, J., Ernst, J., Gerzer, R. and Theisen, K. (1987) ‘Secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is suppressed by verapamil and unaffected by atenolol in man’ (Abstract), Circulation 76 (Suppl.IV), 270.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    Tunny, T.J., Klemm, S.A. and Gordon, R.D. (1987) ‘Effects of angiotensin and noradrenalin on atrial natriuretic peptide levels in man’, Clin. Exper. Pharmacol. Physiol. 14, 221–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Keller, N., Moller, T., Sykulski, R., Storm, T.L. and Thamsborg, G.M. (1987) ‘Effect of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade on plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide during dynamic exercise in normal man’, Horm. Metabol. Res. 19, 344–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12).
    Vehlinger, D.E., Zaman, T., Weidmann, P., Shaw, S. and Gnädinger, M. (1987) ‘Pressure dependence of atrial natriuretic peptide during norepinephrine infusion in humans’, Hypertension 10, 249–253.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Goldberg, L.I. and Rajfer, S.I. (1985) ‘Dopamine receptors: applictions in clinical cardiology’, Circulation 72, 245–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14).
    Larochelle, P., Cusson, J.R., Gutkowska, J., Schiffrin, E.L., Hamet, P., Kuchel, O., Genes, J. and Cantin, M. (1987) ‘Plasma atrial natriuretic factor concentrations in essential and renovascular hypertension’, Br. Med. J. 294, 1249–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Kohno, M., Yasunari, K., Matsuura, T., Murakawa, K. and Takeda, T. (1987) ‘Circulating atrial natriuretic polypeptide in essential hypertension’, Am. Heart J. 113, 1160–1163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16).
    Fontana, F., Spagnolo, N., Guardigli, G., Ventura, C., Cavazza, M., Bastagli, L., Capelli, M., Martelli, E., Bernardi, P and Lenzi, S. (1987) ‘Analysis of the plasmatic levels of atrial natriuretic factor in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)’, in: S. Lenzi and G.C. Descovich (eds.), Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, pp. 961–963.Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    Orlandini G., Bruschi, G., Cavatorta, A., Ceresini, M.B., Manca, C., Pucci, F. and Borghetti, A. (1987) ‘Physiological stimuli to atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in normal humans’, J. Hypertension 5 (5), S67–S70.Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    Racz, K., Kuchel, O., Buu, N.T., Debinski, W:, Cantin, M. and Genest, I. (1986) ‘Atrial natriuretic factor, catecholamines and natriuresis’, N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 321–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19).
    Holtz, J., Sommer, O. and Bassenge, E. (1987) ‘Inhibition of sympathoadrenal activity by atrial natriuretic factor in dogs’, Hypertension 9, 350–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Volpe, H., Cuocolo, A., Vecchione, F., Melea, F., Condorelli, M. and Trimarco, B. (1987) ‘Vagal mediation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on blood pressure and arterial baroreflexes in the rabbit’, Circ. Res. 60, 747–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21).
    Schultz, H.D., Gardner, D.G., Deschepper, C.F., Coleridge, H.M. and Coleridge C.G. (1988) ‘Vagal C-fiber blockade abolishes sympathetic inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor’, Am. J. Physiol. 255, R6–R13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Weder, A.B., Sekkarie, H.A., Takiyyuddin, H., Schork, N.J. and Julius S. (1987) ‘Antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of atrial natriuretic factor in man’, Hypertension 10, 582–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23).
    Lang, R.E., Unger, T. and Ganten, D. (1987) ‘Atrial natriuretic peptide: a new factor in blood pressure control’, J. Hypertension 5, 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Fontana
    • 1
  • P. Bernardi
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical PathologyBologna University, Policlinico S. OrsolaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations