Non-neoplastic Conditions of the External and Middle Ear

  • L. Michaels
Part of the Current Histopathology book series (CUHI, volume 16)


The auricle develops from six knob-like protuberances, arising from the first and second branchial arches, which fuse to form auricular components, such as the helix, antihelix and tragus. The external auditory meatus is derived from the first branchial groove, a depression of the ectoderm between the first (mandibular) arch and the second (hyoid) arch. The deep extremity of this groove meets the outer epithelium of the corresponding first pharyngeal pouch, separated from it by only a thin layer of connective tissue. The point of meeting produces the tympanic membrane.


Tympanic Membrane Chronic Otitis Medium External Otitis External Auditory Meatus Cholesterol Granuloma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cohen, D., Friedman, P. and Eilon, A. (1987). Malignant external otitis versus acute external otitis. J. Laryngol. Otol., 101, 211–21 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cohen, D. and Friedman, P. (1987). The diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. J. Laryngol. Otol., 101, 216–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Milroy, C. M. Slack, R. W. T. Maw, A. R. and Bradfield, J. W. B. (1989). Aural polyps as predictors of underlying cholesteatoma. J. Clin. Pathol., 42, 460–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azadeh, B. and Ardehali, S. (1983). Malakoplakia of middle ear: a case report. Histopathology, 7, 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Poliquin, J. F., Catanzaro, A., Robb, J. and Schiff, M. (1981). Adaptive immunity of the tympanic membrane. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 2, 94–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Politzer, A. (1891). Das Cholesteatom des Gehororgans von anatomische und klinische Standpunkten. Wien. Med. Woch., 8, 331–334.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levenson, M. J., Pansier, S. C., Chute, P., Wenig, S. and Juarba, C. (1986). A review of twenty congenital cholesteatomas of the middle ear in children. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 94, 560–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Michaels, L. (1986). An epidermoid formation in the developing middle ear; possible source of cholesteatoma. J. Otolaryngol., 15, 169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michaels, L. (1989). The biology of cholesteatoma. Otolaryngol. Clin. N. Am., 22, 869–881.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© L. Michaels 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Michaels
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Histopathology Institute of Laryngology and OtologyUniversity College and Middlesex School of MedicineLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations