Pathology of Xenograft Rejection
Rejection of cardiac xenografts between closely-related species may be exclusively acute (cellular) (e.g. cynomolgus monkey to baboon) or may be due to a mixture of hyperacute (humoral, vascular) and acute (e.g. vervet monkey to baboon). Rejection of xenografts between distantly-related species (e.g. pig to baboon) is always by a hyperacute mechanism in the untreated model. Though the acute response can be delayed, or even prevented, by currently available immunosuppressive agents and techniques, hyperacute rejection has, until now, proved extremely difficult to prevent or delay. Cardiac xenografts have very occasionally been used in humans in a desperate attempt to save the life of a patient for whom no human donor heart was available1–3 (Chapter 64). Xenogeneic (and allogeneic in sensitized hosts) cardiac transplants have been performed in a wide range of experimental animals, and have helped to further our understanding of the mechanism of hyperacute rejection4–36 (Chapter 63).
KeywordsAcute Rejection Cardiac Allograft Hyperacute Rejection Cardiac Allograft Rejection Xenograft Rejection
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