Immunological Aspects

  • A. L. Westra
  • J. Prop


When in the early 1980s clinical heart—lung transplantation was reintroduced at Stanford University1, it was assumed that the course of rejection of combined heart—lung transplants was similar to that of isolated cardiac transplants. Furthermore, it was assumed that rejection would occur simultaneously in heart and lungs. These assumptions were based on experimental findings in monkeys2, and seemed to be confirmed by the first clinical observations3, 4. In this perspective, there was no need for specific monitoring of rejection of the lung, because it would be mirrored by the concurrent rejection of the heart; for the detection of heart rejection, endomyocardial biopsy had been proven to be very reliable. With increasing experience, however, it has become evident that cardiac rejection is modulated by the concomitant transplantation of the lungs, and that rejection does not progress simultaneously in heart and lungs.


Acute Rejection Lung Transplant Endomyocardial Biopsy Bronchiolitis Obliterans Lung Allograft 
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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Westra
  • J. Prop

There are no affiliations available

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