The Effects of Environment on the Cool Phase of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxies

  • Jeffrey D. P. Kenney
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 161)


The atomic and molecular gas properties of many galaxies are altered by external influences. Ionization by the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation can account for sharp cutoffs observed in the HI disks of spirals. Tidal interactions between galaxies strip outer disk gas and cause gas clouds to collide more frequently, leading to large radial inflows of gas and enhanced rates of star formation. And in many clusters, interactions between gas in the intracluster medium (ICM) and gas in a galaxy’s interstellar medium (ISM) lead to stripping of outer disk gas, and may perturb the remaining ISM sufficiently to trigger star formation.


Star Formation Column Density Star Formation Rate Stellar Disk Tidal Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arp, H. 1966, Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies ( Pasadena: California Institute of Technology).Google Scholar
  2. Bajtlik, S., Duncan, R. C., and Ostriker, J. P. 1988, Ap.J., 327, 570.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, J. 1989, Nature, 338, 123.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Binggeli, B., Tammann, G. A., and Sandage, A. 1987, Astr.J., 94, 251.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bothun, G. D., and Dressler, A. 1986, Ap.J., 301, 57.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bottinelli, L., and Gouguenheim, L. 1974, Astr.Ap., 36, 461.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Briggs, F. H., Wolfe, A. M., Krumm, N., and Salpeter, E. E. 1980, Ap.J., 238, 510.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bushouse, H. A. 1986, Astr.J., 91, 255.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bushouse, H. A. 1987, Ap.J., 320, 49.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cayatte, V., van Gorkom, J. H., Balkowski, C., and Kotanyi, C. 1989, Astr.J., submitted.Google Scholar
  11. Chamaraux, P., Balkowski, C., and Gerard, E. 1980, Astr.Ap., 83, 38.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Chamaraux, P., Balkowski, C., and Fontanelli, P. 1986, Astr.Ap., 165, 15.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Clemens, D. P. 1985, Ap.J., 295, 422.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, R. S., Dame, T. M., Garay, G., Montani, J., Rubio, M., and Thaddeus, P. 1988, Ap.J. (Letters), 331, L95.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Combes, F., Dupraz, C., Casoli, F., and Pagani, L. 1988, Astr.Ap., 203, L9.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Corbelli, E., Schneider, S. E., and Salpeter, E. E. 1989, Astr.J., 97, 390.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cowie, L. L., and Songaila, A. 1977, Nature, 266, 501.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies, R. D., and Lewis, B. M. 1973, M.N.R.A.S., 165, 231.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickey, J. M., Salpeter, E. E., and Terzian, Y. 1978, Ap.J.Suppl., 36, 77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dressler, A. 1980, Ap.J., 236, 351.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dressler, A. 1986, Ap.J., 301, 35.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dressler, A., and Sandage, A. 1983, Ap.J., 265, 664.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dressler, A., and Schectman, S. 1988, Astr.J., 95, 985.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elmegreen, B. G. 1989a, Ap.J., 338, 178.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elmegreen, B. G. 1989b, Ap.J.(Letters), submitted.Google Scholar
  26. Evrard, A. E. 1989, in the summary of poster papers for this conference, eds. D. J. Hollenbach and H. A. Thronson, Jr. (Washington: NASA), in press.Google Scholar
  27. Fabricant, D., and Gorenstein, P. 1983, Ap.J., 267, 535.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Federman, S. R., Glassgold, A. E., and Kwan, J. 1979, Ap.J., 227, 466.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Forman, W., Jones, C., and Tucker, W. 1985, Ap.J., 293, 102.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallagher, J. S. 1978, Ap.J., 223, 386.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallagher, J. S., and Hunter, D. A. 1989, Astr.J., (Sept).Google Scholar
  32. Galletta, G. 1987, Ap.J., 318, 531.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gavazzi, G., and Jaffe, W. 1985, Ap.J., 294, L89.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gavazzi, G., and Jaffe, W. 1986, Ap.J., 310, 53.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giovanardi, C., Helou, G., Salpeter, E. E., and Krumm, N. 1983, Ap.J., 35, 51.Google Scholar
  36. Giovanelli, R., and Haynes, M. P. 1983, Astr.J., 88, 881.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giovanelli, R., and Haynes, M. P. 1985, Ap.J., 292, 404.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gunn, J. E., and Gott, J. R. 1972, Ap.J., 176, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gunn, J. E. 1989, in The Epoch of Galaxy Formation, eds. Ellis, et al. (Dordrecht: Kluwer), in press.Google Scholar
  40. Harwit, M., Houck, J. R., Soifer, B. T., and Palumbo, G. G. C. 1987, Ap.J., 315, 28.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haynes, M. P., and Giovanelli, R. 1984, Astr.J., 89, 758.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haynes, M. P., and Giovanelli, R. 1986, Ap.J., 306, 466.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haynes, M. P., Giovanelli, R., and Roberts, M. S. 1979, Ap.J., 229, 83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hernquist, L. 1989, Nature, in press.Google Scholar
  45. Hibbard, J. E., and van Gorkom, J. H. 1989, in the summary of poster papers for this conference, eds. D. J. Hollenbach and H. A. Thronson, Jr. (Washington: NASA), in press.Google Scholar
  46. Hoffman, G. L., Helou, G., Salpeter, E. E., and Sandage, A. 1985, Ap.J.(Letters), 287, L15.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoffman, G. L., Helou, G., and Salpeter, E. E. 1988, Ap.J., 324, 75.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hummel, E., van Gorkom, J. H., and Kotanyi, C. G. 1983, Ap J. (Letters), 267, L5.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huchtmeier, W. K., and Richter, O.-G. 1989, Astr.Ap., 210, 1.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. Huchtmeier, W. K., Tammann, G. A., and Wendker, H. J. 1976, Astr.Ap., 46, 381.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Ichikawa, S., Okamura, S., Kodaira, K., and Wakamatsu, K. 1988, Astr.J., 96, 62.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Icke, V. 1985, Astr.Ap., 144, 115.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Irwin, J. A., Seaquist, E. R., Taylor, A. R., and Duric, N. 1987, Ap J. (Letters), 313, L91.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johansson, S. 1989, in Kona Symposium on Submillimetre and Millimetre Astronomy, ed. A. Webster, in press.Google Scholar
  55. Joseph, R. D., and Wright, G. S. 1985, M.N.R.A.S., 214, 87.ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Keel, W. C., Kennicutt, R. C., Hummel, E., and van der Hülst, J. M. 1985, A J., 90, 708.Google Scholar
  57. Kenney, J. D., and Young, J. S. 1986, Ap.J.(Letters), 301, L13.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kenney, J. D., and Young, J. S. 1988, Ap.J., 326, 588.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kenney, J. D. P., and Young, J. S. 1989, Ap.J., 344, 171.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenney, J. D. P., Young, J. S., Hasegawa, T., and Nakai, N. 1990a, Ap.J., (in press).Google Scholar
  61. Kenney, J. D. P., Young, J. S., Rubin, V. C., and Ford, W. K., Jr. 1990b, in preparation.Google Scholar
  62. Kenney, J. D. P., Young, J. S., Rubin, V. C., and Ford, W. K., Jr. 1990c, in preparation.Google Scholar
  63. Kennicutt, R. C. 1983, A.J., 88, 483.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kennicutt, R. C. 1989, Ap.J., in press.Google Scholar
  65. Kennicutt, R. C., Bothun, G. D., and Schommer, R. A. 1984, A.J., 89, 1279.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kennicutt, R. C., Keel, W. C., van der Hulst, J. M., Hummel, E., and Roettinger, K. A. 1987, A.J., 93, 1011.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kotanyi, C., van Gorkom, J. H., and Ekers, R. D. 1983, Ap.J.(Letters), 273, L7.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kritsuk, A. G. 1983, Astrofizika, 19, 263.Google Scholar
  69. Kwan, J. 1979, Ap.J., 229, 567.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kwan, J., and Valdes, F. 1987, Ap.J., 315, 92.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lattanzio, J. C., and Henriksen, R. N. 1988, M.N.R.A.S., 232, 565.ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Lin, Z., and Phinney, E. S. 1989, preprint.Google Scholar
  73. Lonsdale, C. J., Persson, S. E., and Matthews, K. 1984, Ap.J., 287, 95.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McMahon, P. M., Richter, O.-G., van Gorkon, J. H., and Ferguson, H. C. 1989, in the summary of poster papers for this conference, eds. D. J. Hollenbach and H. A. Thronson, Jr. (Washington: NASA), in press.Google Scholar
  75. Magri, C., Haynes, M. P., Forman, W., Jones, C., and Giovanelli, R. 1988, Ap.J., 333, 136.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maloney, P. 1989, in the summary of poster papers for this conference, eds. D. J. Hollenbach and H. A. Thronson, Jr. (Washington: NASA), in press.Google Scholar
  77. Maloney, P., and Black, J. H. 1988, Ap.J., 325, 389.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mihalas, D., and Binney, J. 1981, in Galactic Astronomy: Structure and Kinematics ( San Fransisco: Freeman ), p. 421.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, R. H., and Smith, B. F. 1982, Ap.J., 253, 58.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mirabel, I. F., and Sanders, D. B. 1989, Ap.J.(Letters), 340, L53.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Myers, P. C., and Goodman, A. A. 1988, Ap.J. (Letters), 326, L27.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Noguchi, M. 1988, Astr.Ap., 203, 259.ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Noguchi, M., and Ishibashi, S. 1986, M.N.R.A.S., 219, 305.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Norman, C., and Scoville, N. Z. 1988, Ap.J., 332, 163.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nulsen, P. E. J. 1982, M.N.R.A.S., 198, 1007.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Dea, C. P., Sarazin, C. L., and Owen, F. N. 1987, Ap.J., 316, 113.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Olson, K. M., and Kwan, J. 1989, Ap.J., in press.Google Scholar
  88. Rogstad, D. H., and Shostak, G. S. 1972, Ap.J., 176, 315.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sancisi, R., Thonnard, N., and Ekers, R. D. 1987, Ap.J. (Letters), 315, L39.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sanders, D. B., Scoville, N. Z., Sargent, A. I., and Soifer, B. T. 1988, Ap.J.(Letters), 324, L55.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sargent, A. I., Sanders, D. B., Scoville, N. Z., and Soifer, B. T. 1987, Ap.J.(Letters), 312, L35.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Savage, B. D. 1988, in QSO Absorption Lines: Probing the Universe, eds. J. C. Blades, D. Turnshek, and C. A. Norman ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ), p. 195.Google Scholar
  93. Schneider, S. E. 1989, Ap.J., 343, 94.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schweizer, F. 1986, Science, 231, 227.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schweizer, F., van Gorkom, J. H., and Seitzer, P. 1989, Ap.J., 338, 770.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Scoville, N. Z., Sanders, D. B., Sargent, A. I., Soifer, B. T., and Tinney, C. G. 1989, Ap.J. (Letters ), submitted.Google Scholar
  97. Scoville, N. Z., and Hersh, K. 1979, Ap.J., 229, 578.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scoville, N. Z., and Sanders, D. B. 1987, in Interstellar Processes, eds. D. J. Hollenbach and H. A. Thronson, Jr. ( Dordrecht: Reidel ), p. 21.Google Scholar
  99. Scoville, N. Z., Sanders, D. B., and Clemens, D. 1986, Ap.J. (Letters), 310, L77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaya, E. J., and Federman, S. R. 1987, Ap.J., 319, 76.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shu, F. 1987, in Star Formation in Galaxies, ed. C. J. Lonsdale Persson ( Washington: NASA ), p. 743.Google Scholar
  102. Silk, J. 1971, Astr.Ap., 12, 421.ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Silk, J., and Sunyaev, R. A. 1976, Nature, 260, 508.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spitzer, L., and Baade, W. 1951, Ap.J., 113, 413.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stanford, S. A., Sargent, A. I., Sanders, D. B., and Scoville, N. Z. 1989, Ap.J., in press.Google Scholar
  106. Stark, A. A., Knapp, G. R., Bally, J., Wilson, R. W., Penzias, A. A., and Rowe, H. E. 1986, Ap.J., 310, 660.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Steidel, C. C., and Sargent, W. L. W. 1989, Ap.J. (Letters), 343, L33.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sunyaev, R. A. 1969, Astrophys.Let., 3, 33.ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Takano, S., Awaki, H., Koyama, K., Kunieda, H., Tawara, Y., Yamauchi, S., Makishima, K., and Ohashi, T. 1989, Nature, 340, 289.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Toomre, A., and Toomre, J. 1972, Ap.J., 178, 623.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tully, R. B., and Shaya, E. 1984, Ap.J., 281, 31.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. van der Hulst, T., and Sancisi, R. 1988, Astr.J., 95, 1354.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. van Driel, W. 1987, Ph.D. thesis, Groningen.Google Scholar
  114. van Gorkom, J. H., and Kotanyi, C. 1985, in ESO Workshop on the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies, eds. O.-G. Richter and B. Binggeli ( Garching: ESO ), p. 61.Google Scholar
  115. van Gorkom, J. H., van Albada, T. S., Cornwell, T., and Sancisi, R. 1989, in preparation,Google Scholar
  116. van Gorkom, J. H., Schechter, P. L., and Kristian, J. 1987, Ap.J., 314, 457.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vigroux, L., Thuan, T. X., Vader, J. P., and Lachieze-Rey, M. 1986, Astr.J., 91, 70.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang, Z. 1989, Ap.J., submitted.Google Scholar
  119. Wardle, M., and Knapp, G. R. 1986, Astr.J., 91, 23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Warmels, R. H. 1986, Ph.D. thesis, Groningen.Google Scholar
  121. Warmels, R. H. 1988a, Astr.Ap.Suppl., 72, 19.ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Warmels, R. H. 1988b, Astr.Ap.Suppl., 72, 57.ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Warmels, R. H. 1988c, Astr.Ap.Suppl., 72, 427.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Williams, B. A., and Rood, H. J. 1987, Ap.J.Supp., 63, 265.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Young, J. S., and Scoville, N. Z. 1982, Ap.J., 260, L11.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Young, J. S., Kenney, J. D., Tacconi, L., Claussen, M. J., Huang, Y.-L., Tacconi-Garman, L., Xie, S., and Schloerb, F. P. 1986, Ap.J.(Letters), 311, L17.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey D. P. Kenney
    • 1
  1. 1.Owens Valley Radio ObservatoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyUSA

Personalised recommendations