Stress-Induced Carrot Somatic Embryos and their Applicability to Synthetic Seed
When apical meristems or cotyledons of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. US-Harumakigosum) seedlings were cultured on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium with 03–0.7 M sucrose or 0.1–0.4 M NaCl or one of the heavy metal ions, such as cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc at a concentration ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 mM, somatic embryos formed on the surface of the explants without visible callus formation. Somatic embryo formation was also induced on malformed seedlings, when carrot seeds were treated with hypochlorite solution at a high concentration and sown on MS msdium. These somatic embryos can be fractionated into several groups of different sizes by passing through stainless steel sieves with different pore sizes and encapsulated in calcium alginate gel to make synthetic seeds. These synthetic seeds germinated 1 to 2 weeks after sowing. Frequency of the seeds which developed both a radicle and a green bud was about 30–50% in the case of large embryos (0.5–2.0 mm) induced by the treatment with sucrose, cadmium or sodium hypochlorite, but less than 15% in the case of 2,4-D induced embryos. When 2,4-D induced embryos were sown, numerous secondary and tertiary embryos were formed disturbing further development to form normal seedlings. Our results indicated that the stress-induced somatic embryos possessed higher quality than auxin-induced ones in the use for synthtic seed production.
KeywordsSomatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Synthetic Seed Somatic Embryo Formation Stainless Steel Sieve
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