The Long-Range Transport of Mineral Aerosols: Group Report

  • Lothar W. Schutz
  • Joseph M. Prospero
  • Patrick Buat-Ménard
  • Robert Harriss
  • Renato A. C. Carvalho
  • Neils Z. Heidam
  • Antonio Cruzado
  • Ruprecht Jaenicke
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 297)


Mineral dust is ubiquitous in our world. The generation, transport, and deposition of dust are normal geological processes that have helped to shape and create many features on the surface of the earth. Often this normal process is accelerated by man’s activities.


Source Area Dust Storm Aerosol Optical Depth Mineral Particle Dust Event 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andreae, M. 0., and T. W. Andreae. 1988. The cycle of biogenic sulfur compounds over the Amazon basin: 1. Dry season.J Geophys. Res93: 1487–1497.Google Scholar
  2. Andreae, M. 0., T. W. Andreae, R. J. Ferek, and H. Raemdonck. 1984. Long-range transport of soot carbon in the marine atmosphere.Sci. Total Environ36: 73–80.Google Scholar
  3. Andreae, M. 0., R. J. Charlson, F. Bruynzeels, H. Storms, and R. Vergrie- ken. 1986. Internal mixture of sea salt, silicates, and excess sulfate in marine aerosols.Science232: 1620–1622.Google Scholar
  4. Andreae, M.O., E.V. Browell, M. Garstang, G.L. Gregory, R.C. Harriss, G.F. Hill, D.J. Jacob, M.C. Pereira, G.W. Sachse, A.W. Setzer, P.L. Silva Dias, R.W. Talbot, A.L. Torres, and S.C. Wofsy. 1988. Biomass-burning and associated haze layers over Amazonia. J. Geophys. Res. 93:1509-1527.Google Scholar
  5. Arimoto, R.., and R.A. Duce. 1986. Dry deposition models and the air/sea exchange of trace elements. J. Geophys. Res. 91:2787-2792.Google Scholar
  6. Arimoto, R., R.A. Duce, B.J. Ray, and C.K. Unni. 1985. Atmospheric trace elements at Enewetak Atoil: 2. Transport to the ocean by wet and dry deposition. J. Geophys. Res. 90:2391-2408Google Scholar
  7. Bergametti, G. 1987. Apports de matiere par voie atmospherique a la Medi- terranee Occidentale: Aspects geochimiques et meteorologiques. Ph.D. dissert., Univ. of Paris, 296 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Biscaye, P.E . 1965. Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans.Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 76:803–832.Google Scholar
  9. Biscaye, P.E., R. Chesselet, and J.M. Prospero. 1974. Rb-Sr, 87Sr/86Sr isotope system as an index of provenance of continental dusts in the open Atlantic Ocean.Rech. Atmos. 8:819–829.Google Scholar
  10. Borrmann, S., and R. Jaenicke. 1987. Wind tunnel experiments on the resuspension of sub-micrometer particles from a sand surface.Atmos. Environ. 21:1891–1898.Google Scholar
  11. Brinkman, A.W., and J. McGregor. 1983. Solar radiation in dense Saharan aerosol in northern Nigeria.Quart. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 109:831–847.Google Scholar
  12. Buat-Ménard, P. 1986a. Air to sea transfer of anthropogenic trace metals. InThe Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling(P. Buat- Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht: Reidel, 497–529.Google Scholar
  13. Buat-Ménard, P. 1986b. The ocean as a sink for atmospheric particles. InThe Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling(P. Buat-Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht: Reidel, 165 - U3.Google Scholar
  14. Buat-Ménard, P., V. Ezat, and A. Gaudichet. 1983. Size distribution and mineralogy of aluminosilicate dust particles in tropical Pacific air and rain. InPrecipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition and Resuspension. Vol 2(H.R. Prupracher, R.G. Semonin, and W.G.N. Slinn, eds.) New York:Elsevier, 1259–1269.Google Scholar
  15. Bucher, A., and C. Lucas. 1984. Sedimentation eolienne intercontinentales, poussiers sahariennes et geologie.Bull. Centre Rech. Explor. Product. Elf Aquitaine8:151–165.Google Scholar
  16. Carder, K.L., R.G. Steward, P.R. Betzer, D.L. Johnson, and J.M. Prospero. 1986. Dynamics and composition of particles from an aeolian input event to the Sargasso Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 91:1055–1066.Google Scholar
  17. Carlson, T.N . 1979. Atmosphere turbidity in Saharan dust outbreaks as determined by analysis of satelite brightness data.Mon. Weather. Rev.107:322–355Google Scholar
  18. Carlson, T.N., and J.M. Caverly. 1977. Radiative characteristics of Saharan dust at solar wavelengths.J. Geophys. Res.82:3141–3152.Google Scholar
  19. Carlson, T.N., and J.M. Prospero. 1972. The large-scale movement of Saharan air outbreaks over the northern equatorial Atlantic.Appl Meteorol. 11:283–297Google Scholar
  20. Charney, J., P. H. Stone, and W. J. Quirk. 1975. Drought in the Sahara: A biogeophysical feedback mechanism.Science187: 434–435.Google Scholar
  21. Chester, R. 1982. Particulate aluminum fluxes in the eastern Atlantic.Marine Chemistry11: 1–16.Google Scholar
  22. Chester, R. 1986. The marine mineral aerosol. InThe Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling(P. Buat-Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht: Reidel, 443–476.Google Scholar
  23. Chung, Y.-S., and H.V Le. 1984. Detection of forest-fire smoke plumes by satellite imagery.Atmos. Environ. 18:2143–2151.Google Scholar
  24. Cooke, R. U., and A. Warren. 1973.Geomorphology in DesertsLondon: Batsford, 375 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Coude-Gaussen, G . 1984. Le cycle des poussieres eoliennes desertiques actualles et la sedimentation des loess peridesertiques quaternaires. Bull. Centre Rech. Explor. Product. Elf Aquitaine 8:167–182Google Scholar
  26. Coude-Gaussen, G . 1989. Discussion of the sedimentary logical, characterization of proximal or distal, atmospheric or deposited, Saharan dusts. InPaleoclimatologv and Paleometeorology, Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric TransportNATO ASI-Series C, Dordrecht:Kluwer.Google Scholar
  27. D’Almeida, G.A . 1986. A model for Saharan dust transport.Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25:903–916Google Scholar
  28. D’Almeida G.A., and L. Schutz. 1983. Number, mass and volume distribution of mineral aerosol and soils of the Sahara.Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22:233–243.Google Scholar
  29. Duce, R. A . 1986. The impact of atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorous and iron species on marine biological productivity. InThe Role of Air- Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling(P. Buat-Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht.Reidel, 497–529Google Scholar
  30. Fishman, J., F.M. Vukovitch, D.R. Cahoon, and M.C. Shipman. 1987. The characterization of an air pollution episode using satellite total ozone measurements.Climatol. Appl. Meteorol. 26:1638–1654.Google Scholar
  31. Flannigan, M.D., and T.H. Vonder Haar. 1986. Forest fire monitoring using NOAA satellite AVHRR.Can. Forest Res. 16:975–982Google Scholar
  32. Fraser, R.S., Y.J Kaufman, and R.L Mahoney. 1984. Satellite measurements of aerosol mass and transport.Atmos Environ. 18:2577–2584Google Scholar
  33. Gagosian, R.B . 1986. The air-sea exchange of particulate organic matter: The sources and long-range transport of lipids in aerosols. In The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling (P. Buat-Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht: Reidel, 409–442Google Scholar
  34. Gagosian, R. B., E. T. Peltzer, and J. T. Merrill. 1987. Long-range transport of terrestrially derived lipids in aerosols from the South Pacific.Nature325: 800–803.Google Scholar
  35. Gillette, D. A. 1981. Production of dust that may be carried great distances. InDesert Dust: Origin, Characteristics, and EffectsonMan(T. L. Pewe, ed.) Spec. Paper 186, Boulder: Geol. Soc. Am., 11–26.Google Scholar
  36. Gillette, D.A . 1988. Threshold friction velocities for dust production for agricultural soils.J. Geophvs. Res. 93:12,645–12,662.Google Scholar
  37. Gillette, D.A., I.M. Blifford, Jr., and C.R. Fenster. 1972. Measure­ments of aerosol size distributions and vertical fluxes of aerosols on land subject to wind erosion.Appl. Meteorol.11:977–987.Google Scholar
  38. Gillette, D.A., J. Adams, A. Endo, D. Smith, and R. Kihl. 1980. Threshold velocities for input of soil particles into the air by desert soils.J. Geophvs. Res. 85:5621–5630.Google Scholar
  39. Gillette, D.A., J. Adams, D. Muhs, and R. Kihl. 1982. Threshold friction velocities and rupture moduli for crushed desert soils for input of soil particles into the air.J. Geophvs. Res. 87:9003–9015.Google Scholar
  40. Giorgi, F . 1986. A particle dry-deposition parameterization scheme for use in tracer transport models.J. Geophvs. Res. 91:9794–9806Google Scholar
  41. Glaccum, R. A., and J. M. Prospero. 1980. Saharan aerosols over the tropical North Atlantic—mineralogy.Marine Geol37: 295–321.Google Scholar
  42. Goudie, A. S. 1981. Aeolian processes, landforms, and the spatial distribution of aridic soils. Paper presented, Int. Symp. Aridic Soils, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  43. Goudie, A.S . 1983. Dust storms in space and time.Prog. Phys. Geog.7:502–530.Google Scholar
  44. Griggs, M . 1983. Satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols over the tropical North Atlantic.Adv. Space Res. 2:109–118.Google Scholar
  45. Grousset, F.E., P.E. Biscaye, A. Zindler, J.M. Prospero, and R. Chester. 1988. Nd isotopes as tracers in marine sediments and aerosols: North Atlantic.Earth Planetary Sci. Ltrs. 87:367–378.Google Scholar
  46. Harriss, R.C., E.V. Browell, D.I. Sebacher, G.L. Gregory, R.R. Hinton, S.M. Beck, D.S. McDougal, and S.T. Shipley. 1984. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean.Nature308: 722–724.Google Scholar
  47. Heidam, N.Z . 1984. The components of the Arctic aerosol.Atmos. Environ.18:329–343.Google Scholar
  48. Heidam, N.Z . 1985. Crustal enrichments in the Arctic aerosol.Atmos. Environ. 19:2083–2097.Google Scholar
  49. Helgren, D.M., and J.M. Prospero. 1987. Wind velocities associated with dust deflation events in the western Sahara.Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26:1147–1151.Google Scholar
  50. Helmes, L., and R. Jaenicke. 1988. Long-term series of atmospheric turbidity, estimated from records of sunshine duration and cloud cover. InAerosols and Climate( P. V. Hobbs and M. P. McCormick, eds.) Hampton, VA: Deepak Publishing (Environ. Sci. Technol.).Google Scholar
  51. Hicks, B. B., M. L. Wesely, and J. L. Durham, 1980.CritiqueofMethodstoMeasure Dry Deposition. EPA-600/9-80-050, Res. Triangle Park, NC: Environ. Sci. Res. Lab., n.p.Google Scholar
  52. Hooghiemstra, H., 0. C. A. Chiori, and H.-J. Beug. 1986. Pollen and spore distribution in recent marine sediments: A record of NW African seasonal wind patterns and vegetation belts.Meteor. Forschungs ErgebnisseC40: 87–135.Google Scholar
  53. Hyers, A. D., and M. G. Marcus. 1981. Land use and desert dust hazards in central Arizona. InDesert Dust: Origin. Characteristics, and EffectonMan(T. L. Pewe, ed.) Special Paper 186, Boulder: Geol. Soc. Am., n.p.Google Scholar
  54. Ivasaka, Y., H. Minoura, and K. Nagaya. 1983. The transport and spacial scale of Asian dust-storm clouds: A case study of the dust-storm event of April 1979.Tellus35B: 189–196.Google Scholar
  55. Jaenicke, R. 1979. Monitoring and critical review of the estimated source strength of mineral dust from the Sahara. InSaharan Dust: Mobilization. Transport. Deposit ion( C. Morales, ed.) New York: Wiley, 233–242.Google Scholar
  56. Jaenicke, R., and L. Schutz. 1978. Comprehensive study of physical and chemical properties of the surface aerosols in the Cape Verde Islands region.J. Geophvs.Res. 83:3585–3599.Google Scholar
  57. Jaenicke, R., C. Junge, and H.J. Kanter. 1971. Messungen der Aerosol- grossenvertsilung uber dem Atlantic.Meteor. Forsch. Ber. B7:l–54.Google Scholar
  58. Jonas, R., and E. Heinemann. 1985. Studies on the dry deposition of aerosol particles on vegetation and plane surfaces.Aerosol Sci16: 463–471.Google Scholar
  59. Joussaume, S., and R. Sadourny. 1989. Desert dust and climate: Investigation using an atmospheric general circulation model. In Paleocli- matology andPaleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric TransportNATO ASI Series, Dordrecht:KluwerGoogle Scholar
  60. Junge, C. 1979. The importance of mineral dust as an atmospheric constituent. InSahara Dust: Mobilization. Transport. Deposition( C. Morales, ed.) New York: Wiley, 49–60.Google Scholar
  61. Kalu, A. E. 1979. The African dust plume: Its characteristics and propagation across West Africa in winter. InSaharan Dust: Mobilization. Transport, and Deposition( C. Morales, ed.) New York: Wiley, 95–118.Google Scholar
  62. Karyampudi, V.M., and T.N. Carlson. 1988. Analysis and numerical simu­lations of the Saharan air layer and its effect on easterly wave disturbances.Atmos. Sci. 45:3102–3136.Google Scholar
  63. Khemani, L.T., G.A. Momin, M.S. Naik, P.S. Prakasa Rao, P.D. Safai, and A.S.R. Murty. 1987. Influence of alkaline particulates on pH of cloud and rain water in India.Atmos. Environ. 21:1137–1145.Google Scholar
  64. Killinger, D. K., and N. Menyuk. 1987. Laser remote sensing of the atmosphere.Science235: 37–45.Google Scholar
  65. Landing, V.M., and K.W. Bruland. 1987. The contrasting biogeochemistry of iron and manganese in the Pacific Ocean.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 51:29–43.Google Scholar
  66. Lane, D. D., and J. J. Stukel. 1978. Aerosol deposition on a flat plate.Aerosol Sci9: 191–197.Google Scholar
  67. Leinen, M . 1989. The late quaternary record of atmospheric transport to the northwest Pacific from Asia. InPaleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns ot Global Atmospheric Transport, NATO ASI Series, Dordrecht:KluwerGoogle Scholar
  68. Lowenthal, D.H., and K.A. Rahn. 1985. Regional sources of pollution aerosol at Barrow, Alaska, during winter 1979-1980 as deduced from elemental tracers.Atmos. Environ. 19:2011–2024.Google Scholar
  69. Maring, H.B., and R.A. Duce. 1987. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater: 1. Alumi­num.Earth Planetary Sci. Ltrs. 84:381–392.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, J. H., and S. E. Fitzwater. 1988. Iron deficiency limits phyto- plankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic.Nature331: 341–343.Google Scholar
  71. McCauley, J. F., C. S. Breed, M. J. Grolier, and D. J. MacKinnon. 1981. The US dust storm of February 1977. InDesert Dust: Origin. Characteristics. and Effects on Man(T. L. Pewe, ed.) Special Paper 186, Boulder: Geol. Soc. Am., 123–148.Google Scholar
  72. McMahon, T.A., and P.J. Denison. 1979. Empirical atmospheric deposition parameters-a survey.Atmos. Environ. 13:571–585.Google Scholar
  73. Measures, C.I., B. Grant, M. Khadem, D.S. Lee, and J.M. Edmond. 1984. Distribution of Be, Al, Se and Bi in the surface waters of the west-ern North Atlantic and Caribbean.Earth Planetary Sci. Ltrs. 71: 1–12Google Scholar
  74. Merrill, J. T. 1986. Atmospheric pathways to the oceans. InThe RoleofAir-Sea ExchangeinGeochemical Cycling(P. Buat-Ménard, ed.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 185, Dordrecht: Reidel, 35–63.Google Scholar
  75. Merrill, J.T., R. Bleck, and L. Avila. 1985. Modeling atmospheric trans­port to the Marshall Islands.J. Geophvs. Res. 90:12,927–12,936.Google Scholar
  76. Middleton, N. J., A. S. Goudie, and G. L. Wells. 1986. The frequency and source areas of dust storms. InAeolian Geomorpholo£v(W. G. Nickling, ed.) New York.Allen and Unwin, 237–259.Google Scholar
  77. Moore, R.M., J.E. Milley, and A. Chatt. 1984. The potential for biolo­gical mobilization of trace elements from aeolian dust in the ocean and its importance ic the case of iron.Oceanol. Acta.7:221–228.Google Scholar
  78. Morales, C. 1979. The use of meteorological observations for studies of the mobilization, transport and deposition of Saharan soil dust. InSaharan Dust: Mobilization, Transport,Deposition( C. Morales, ed.) New York: Wiley, 119–131.Google Scholar
  79. National Academy of Sciences (National Research Council). 1985.The Effects on the Atmosphere ofaMajor Nuclear Exchange. Washington: National Academy Press, 193 pp.Google Scholar
  80. National Academy of Sciences. 1986.Remote Sensing of the Biosphere. Washington: National Academy Press, 135 pp.Google Scholar
  81. National Academy of Sciences . 1988.Space Science in the. Twenty First CenturyWashington:National Academy Press, 84 pp.Google Scholar
  82. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1987.Space-based Remote Sensing of the Earth. Washington: US Govern. Printing Office, 123 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Nickling, W. 1989. Particulate emissions from desert soils. InPaleocli- matologv and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past PatternsofGlobal Atmospheric Transport, NATO ASI Series, Dordrecht:Kluwer.Google Scholar
  84. Orians, K.J., and K.W. Bruland. 1986. The biochemistry of aluminium in the Pacific Ocean.Earth Planetary Sci. Ltrs. 78:397-410.Google Scholar
  85. Prospero, J.M . 1981. Aeolian transport to the world ocean. InThe Sea: Vol 7. The Oceanic Lithosohere(C. Emiliani, ed.) New York: Wiley, 801–874Google Scholar
  86. Prospero, J. M., and T. N. Carlson. 1972. Vertical and areal distribution of Saharan dust over the western equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 77:5255–5265Google Scholar
  87. Prospero, J. M., and R. T. Nees. 1986. Impact of the North African drought and El Nino on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds.Nature320: 735–738.Google Scholar
  88. Prospero, J. M., D. L. Savoie, T. N. Carlson, and R. T. Nees. 1979. Monitoring Saharan aerosol transport by means of atmospheric turbidity measurements. InSaharan Dust: Mobilization, Transport, Deposition(C. Morales, ed.) New York: Wiley, 171–186.Google Scholar
  89. Prospero, J. M., R. T. Nees, and M. Uematsu. 1987. Deposition rate of particulate and dissolved aluminum derived from Saharan dust in precipitaion at Miami, Florida. J. Geophys. Res. 92:14, 723–14,731Google Scholar
  90. Pye, K. 1984. Loess Prog. Phys. Geography 8:176–217Google Scholar
  91. Pye, K . 1987.Aeolian Dust and Dust Deposits New York:Academic Press, 334 pp.Google Scholar
  92. Rea, D. K., and T. R. Janecek. 1982. Late Cenozoic changes in atmospheric circulation deduced from North Pacific eolian sediments.Marine Geol49: 149–167.Google Scholar
  93. Rea, D. K., M. Leinen, and T. R. Janecek. 1985. Geologic approach to the long-term history of atmospheric circulation.Science227: 721–725.Google Scholar
  94. Schutz, L. 1977. Die Saharastaub-Komponente Uber dem Subtropischen Nord- Atlantik. Ph.D. dissert., Univ. of Mainz, FRG, 153 pp.Google Scholar
  95. Schutz, L. 1980. Long-range transport of desert dust with special emphasis on the Sahara. InAerosols: Anthropogenic and Natural, Sources and Transport(T. J. Kneip and P. J. Lioy, eds.) New York:Ann. NY Academy Sci. 338: 515–532.Google Scholar
  96. Schutz, L., and R. Jaenicke. 1974. Particle number and mass distribution above 10~4 cm radius in sand and aerosol of the Sahara desert.Appl. Meteorol. 13:863–870.Google Scholar
  97. Schutz, L., and M. Kramer. 1987. Rainwater composition over a rural area with special emphasis on the size distribution of insoluble particulate matter.Atmos. Chemistry5:173–184.Google Scholar
  98. Schutz, L., and M. Sebert. 1987. Mineral aerosols and source identification.Aerosol Sci18: 1–10.Google Scholar
  99. Schutz, L., and K.A. Rahn. 1982. Trace-element concentrations in erod- ible soils.Atmos. Environ. 16:171–176.Google Scholar
  100. Schutz, L., R. Jaenicke, and H. Pietrer. 1981. Saharan dust transport over the North Atlantic Ocean. InDesert Dust: Origin. Characteristics, and Effects on Man(T. L. Pewe, ed.) Special Paper 186, Boulder: Geol. Soc. Am., 87–100.Google Scholar
  101. Sehmel, G.A . 1980. Particle and gas dry deposition: A review.Atmos. Environ. 14:983–1011.Google Scholar
  102. Simoneit, B. R. T. 1977. Organic matter in eolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean.Marine Chemistry5: 443–467.Google Scholar
  103. Slinn, W. G. N. 1983. Air-to-sea transfer of particles. InAir-Sea Exchanges of Gases and Particles(P. S. Liss and W. G. N. Slinn, eds.), NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 108, Dordrecht: Reidel, 299–405.Google Scholar
  104. Talbot, R.W., R.C. Harriss, E.V. Browell, G.L. Gregory, D.I. Sebacher, and S.M. Beck. 1986. Distribution and geochemistry of aerosols in the tropical North Atlantic troposhere: Relationship to Saharan dust.J. Geophvs. Res. 91:5173–5182.Google Scholar
  105. Tsoar, H., and K. Pye. 1987. Dust transport and the question of desert loess formation.Sedimentology34: 139–153.Google Scholar
  106. Uematsu, M., R.A. Duce, and J.M. Prospero. 1985. Deposition of atmospheric mineral particles in the North Pacific Ocean.Atmos. Chemistry3:123–138.Google Scholar
  107. Volz, F.E . 1970. Spectral skylight and solar radiation measurements in the Caribbean: Maritime aerosols and Saharan dust.Atmos. Sci. 27: 1041–1047.Google Scholar
  108. Westphal, D. L., O. B. Toon, and T. N. Carlson. 1987. A two-dimensional numerical investigation of the dynamics and microphysics of Saharan dust storms.J. Geophys. Res92: 3027–3049.Google Scholar
  109. Westphal, D.L., 0.B. Toon, and T.N. Carlson. 1989. A case study of mobilization and transport of Saharan dust. Atmos. Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  110. Wolff, G.T., T.M. Church, J.N. Galloway, and A.H. Knap. 1987. An examination of S0X, N0X and trace metal washout ratios over the western Atlantic Ocean.Atmos. Environ. 21:2623–2628.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lothar W. Schutz
    • 1
  • Joseph M. Prospero
    • 2
  • Patrick Buat-Ménard
    • 3
  • Robert Harriss
    • 4
  • Renato A. C. Carvalho
    • 5
  • Neils Z. Heidam
    • 6
  • Antonio Cruzado
    • 7
  • Ruprecht Jaenicke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut fuer MeteorologieJohannes Gutenberg-UniversitaetMainzFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Centre des Faibles RadioactivitésLaboratoire Mixte CNRS-CEAGif sur YvetteFrance
  4. 4.Langley Research CenterNASAHamptonCanada
  5. 5.Instituto Nacional de Meteorologica e GeofisicaRua C do Aeroporta de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  6. 6.MiljøstyrelsenLuftforureningslaboratorietRoskildeDenmark
  7. 7.Consell Superior d’Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC)Centro de Estudios Avanzados de BlanesBlanes (Girona)Spain

Personalised recommendations