Integrated Assessment of Energy-Options for CO2 Reduction

  • T. Kram
  • P. A. Okken


Energy technology options for CO2 reduction are evaluated in a process-oriented dynamic national costs minimizing LP-model of the Dutch energy system. To identify cost-effective CO2 reduction strategies two scenarios are calculated with a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions in 2020. CO2 reduction sharpens the contrast between both scenarios: the nuclear supply-oriented all-electric strategy in the “Trend” scenario, versus the demand oriented gas strategy in the “Green” scenario. Some options are chosen in both scenarios to reduce CO2. It is recommended to direct R,D&D-policy to these “robust” options, which include energy conservation, materials recycling, renewable energy and high efficient gas conversion technologies. Accounting for indirect CO2 emissions and non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the energy system is not expected to change the optimal reduction strategies.

This scenario study was sponsored by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) and by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment R,D&D Management (NOVEM).


Emission Coefficient Base Case Scenario Underground Coal Gasification Fuel Switching Primary Energy Supply 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kram
    • 1
  • P. A. Okken
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Study CentreNetherlands Energy Research FoundationPettenThe Netherlands

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