Effects of age and gender upon Doppler stress measurements at rest and during exercise in normal subjects

  • Farshad J. Nosratian
  • Julius M. Gardin
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 105)


As Doppler echocardiography becomes more popular as a non-invasive tool to assess left ventricular function, the need to develop a body of normal reference measurements becomes more important. In particular, it is crucial to define the effects on Doppler measurements of variables such as age, gender, body surface area, heart rate, loading conditions and contractility. For example, using M-mode echocardiography, investigators have previously demonstrated [1–4] a relationship between both age and body surface area and measurements of left ventricular, left atrial and aortic root dimensions, and left ventricular wall thickness. Body surface area, of course, has a close relationship to gender, males usually having larger body surface areas than females. Heart rate and loading conditions have also been documented to be related to cardiac chamber dimensions [5]. The purpose of this chapter is to assess in normal subjects the relationships, during both rest and exercise, between Doppler systolic flow velocity measurements and age, gender, and body surface area.


Body Surface Area Ejection Time Average Acceleration Flow Velocity Measurement Peak Flow Velocity 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farshad J. Nosratian
    • 1
  • Julius M. Gardin
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, California College of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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