Advertisement

Respiratory Effects Associated With Global Climate Change

  • Lester D. Grant

Abstract

Notable changes in global climate are projected as likely to occur during the next several decades and well into the next century due to (1) stratospheric ozone depletion caused by anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons (bromine compounds) and other compounds, and (2) global warming due to "greenhouse" gases (such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone, and CFCs). These global climate changes are expected to result in many human health and environmental impacts. Included are likely increased frequency and duration of air stagnation periods, which may contribute to more severe air pollution episodes over urban and rural areas during which more marked elevations in surface level air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, acid aerosols, etc.) are likely to pose increased health risks for exposed human populations. Decrements in pulmonary function, increased respiratory symptoms, impairments of lung defense mechanisms, and possibly more chronic damage to lung tissue and earlier loss of lung capacity with aging are types of respiratory effects associated with exposures to ozone; decrements in lung function, increased morbidity (e.g. higher incidence of bronchitis), and increased mortality (at sufficiently high exposure levels) are associated with exposures to sulfur dioxide, its acidic transformation products,The occurrence and severity of these types of effects associates with increased air pollution levels in many areas of the world, then, will likely be exacerbated by stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. In turn, certain feedback effects (e.g. increased tropospheric ozone) are likely to contribute to further increase in global warming. Such linkages highlight the need for national and international strategies, both to deal with emerging stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming/climate change issues and, also, with interrelated tropospheric air pollution problems.

Keywords

Global Warming Sulfur Dioxide United Nations Environment Programme Tropospheric Ozone Stratospheric Ozone Depletion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Gery, M.W., 1989. Tropospheric Air Quality, Environmental Effects Panel Report, Pursuant to Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol in Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  2. Grant, L.D., 1988.Health Effects Issues Associated with Regional and Global Air Pollution Problems, Conference Proceedings, The Changing Atmosphere Implications for Global Security. Report No. WHO/OMM No. 710,1988.Google Scholar
  3. Grant, L.D., R.W. Elias, R.A. Goyer, H. Olem, W J. Nicholson, P.M. Bertsch, J.M. Davis, A.R. Flegal, K.R. Mahaffey, 1990. Indirect Health Effects of Acidic Deposition. Washington, DC: National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program; State-of-the- Science/Technology Paper No. 23. (In press.)Google Scholar
  4. Lippmann, M., 1989a. “Health effects of ozone: a critical review.” J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 39:671–695.Google Scholar
  5. Lippmann, M., 1989b. “Background in health effects of acid aerosols.” In: Symposium on Health Effects of Acid Aerosols(October 1987). Research Triangle Park, NC. Environmental Health Perspectives 79:3–6. Google Scholar
  6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986a. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants. Vol. I-V. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA Report No. EPA/600/8–84/020aF-eF.Google Scholar
  7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides. 3 v. Office of Health andGoogle Scholar
  8. Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA Report No. EPA-600/8–82–029aF-cF.Google Scholar
  9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986b. Second Addendum to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of Newly Available Health Effects Information. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA Report No. EPA-600/8–86–020F.Google Scholar
  10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987. Assessing the Risks of Trace Gases That Can Modify the Stratosphere. Vol. I-V. Office of Air and Radiation, Washington, DC. EPA Report No. EPA/400/1–287/001A-E.Google Scholar
  11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989. An Acid Aerosols Issue Paper: Health Effects andAerometrics. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA Report No. EPA/600/8–88-005F.Google Scholar
  12. Van der Leun, J.C., T. Takizawa, and J.D. Longstreth, 1989. Human Health Environmental Effects Panel Report, Pursuant to Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya. Villach, 1985. Report of the International Conference on the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts. Report No. WMO-No. 661, International Council of Scientific Unions, United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, 78 pp. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lester D. Grant
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Office of Health and Environmental AssessmentU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations