The Production of ATP

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  • R. P. F. Gregory
Part of the Tertiary Level Biology book series (TLB)


The history of the discovery of ATP and its involvement in the molecular mechanisms of biology is sketched in Table 6.1. The disco very, by Arnon et al. (1954), that isolated chloroplasts were able to produce ATP (photophosphorylation), was a major breakthrough in our understanding of plant cell biology, and the appearance of the chemiosmotic theory (Mitchell, 1961) had a similar impact in connecting areas of study which had been regarded as separate. In both cases furious debates were set in motion, generating an exhilarating torrent of experiment, before the new ideas became generally accepted.


Membrane Potential Electron Transport Thylakoid Membrane Photosynthetic Electron Transport Purple Bacterium 
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Further reading

  1. Nicholls, D.G. (1982) Bioenergetics. An introduction to the chemiosmotic theory Academic Press, London, Chapters 6 and 7.Google Scholar
  2. Ort, D.R. and Good, N.E. (1988) Textbooks ignore photosystem II-dependent ATP formation: is the Z-scheme to blame? Trends Biochem. Sci. 13, 467–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Cited references

  1. Arnon, D.I., Allen, M.B. and Whatley, F.R. (1954) Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts. Nature 174, 394–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chance, B. and Williams, G.R. (1955) Respiratory enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation. III, The steady state. J. Biol. Chem. 217, 409–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Godde, D. (1982) Evidence for a membrane bound NADH-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW-15. Arch. Microbiol 131, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hind, G. and Jagendorf, A.T. (1963) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 49, 715–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kouyama, T., Nasuda-Kouyama, A., Ikegami, A., Matthew, M.K. and Stoeckenius, W. (1988) Bacteriorhodopsin photoreaction: identification of a long-lived intermediate N(P, R350) at high pH and its M-like photoproduct. Biochemistry 27, 5855–5863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mathies, R.A., Brito Cruz, C.H., Pollard, W.T. and Shank, C.V. (1988). Direct observation of the femtosecond excited-state cis-trans isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin. Science 240, 777–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mitchell, P. (1961) Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemiosmotic type of mechanism. Nature 191, 423–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stoeckenius, W. (1985) The rhodopsin-like pigments of halobacteria: light-energy and signal transducers in an archaebacterium. Trends Biochem. Sci. 10, 483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Stryer, L. (1988) Biochemistry, 3rd ed, WH Freeman & Co., New York.Google Scholar
  10. West, K.R. and Wiskich, J.T. (1968) Photosynthetic control by isolated pea chloroplasts. Biochem. J. 109, 527–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wraight, C.A., Cogdell, R.J. and Chance, B. (1978) in Clayton, R.K. and Sistrom W.R., eds., The Photosynthetic Bacteria Plenum Press, New York, 471–511.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Blackie and Son Ltd 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. F. Gregory
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ManchesterUK

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