Geohazards pp 33-42 | Cite as

Volcanic hazards in Colombia and Indonesia: lahars and related phenomena

  • H. Th. Verstappen
Part of the AGID Report Series book series (ARS)


Volcanic mudflows or lahars are a major type of volcanic hazard: they travel at high velocity over large distances, thus often affecting densely populated rural areas and urban settlements on the lower slopes of volcanoes. The mechanisms of lahar development and their various types, such as “hot” lahars associated with pyroclastic flows, “cold” or rain-fed lahars, and lahars caused by emptying of crater lakes or melting of snow and ice covering top areas, are discussed. Subsequently problems of hazard zoning and monitoring/early warning are dealt with. Methods of controlling and/or diverting lahar flows and related engineering structures are assessed. Merapi and Kelud volcanoes, Indonesia, and Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, serve as examples.


Pyroclastic Flow Crater Lake Hazard Zoning Volcanic Hazard Lahar Deposit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bemmelen, R.W. van, 1949. The Geology of Indonesia. Vol 1A, 220 p, The Hague, Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  2. Bercy, C., and others, 1983. Underwater noise survey in the crater lake of Kelut volcano (Indonesia). In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (eds), Forecasting Volcanic Events, Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, p 529–543.Google Scholar
  3. Directorate of Volcanology, 1977. Hazard zoning map of Mount Merapi.Google Scholar
  4. Maruyama, Y., 1980. Applied geomorphological land classification on debris control planning in the area of Mt Merapi, Indonesia. Proceedings of the 10th International Cartographic Association Conference, Tokyo, 19 p.Google Scholar
  5. Naranjo, J.J., and others, 1986. The November 13, 1985 eruption of the Ruiz volcano, Colombia: tephra fall, jökulhlaups and lahars. Science, vol 232, p 964–967.Google Scholar
  6. Rivera, A., 1986. Events leading to Colombia’s Ruiz volcano eruption and its results described. The Mining Engineer, vol 2, p 99–100.Google Scholar
  7. Sigurdsson, H., and S. Carey, 1986. Volcanic disasters in Latin America and the 13th November 1985 eruptions of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia. Disasters, vol 10(3), p 205–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tazieff, H., 1983. Monitoring and interpretation of activity on Mt Merapi, Indonesia, 1977–1980: an example of practical “civil defense” volcanology. In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (eds), Forecasting Volcanic Events, Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, p 485–492.Google Scholar
  9. Ulate, C.A., and M.F. Corrales, 1966. Mudflows related to the Irazo volcano eruptions. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, vol 6, p 117–423.Google Scholar
  10. Verstappen, H.Th., 1982. Applied Geomorphology. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, p 417–423.Google Scholar
  11. Verstappen, H.Th., 1988. Geomorphological surveys and natural hazard zoning, with special reference to volcanic hazards in Central Java. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Neue Folge, Supplement Band 68, p 81–101.Google Scholar
  12. VSTC, 1985. Debris Flow Forecasting and Warning at Mt Merapi. Volcanic Sabo Technical Centre report, p 1–6.Google Scholar
  13. VSTC, 1986. Volcanic Debris Control in the Area of Mt Merapi. Volcanic Sabo Technical Centre report, p 1–54.Google Scholar
  14. IJzendoorn, M.J. van, 1952. The eruption of Gunung Kelud on August 31, 1951, proved the utility of the Kelud tunnel-works. Indonesian Journal of Scientific Research, vol 1, p 8–9.Google Scholar
  15. Zen, M.T., 1983. Mitigating volcanic disasters in Indonesia. In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (eds), Forecasting Volcanic Events, Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, p 219–236.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G.J.H. McCall, D.J.C. Laming and S.C. Scott 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Th. Verstappen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations