On the Impact of Grown-in Silicon Oxide Precipitate Nuclei on Silicon Gate Oxide Integrity

  • J. Vanhellemont
  • G. Kissinger
  • K. Kenis
  • M. Depas
  • D. Gräf
  • U. Lambert
  • P. Wagner
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASHT, volume 17)


Small point defect clusters grown-in during Czochralski (Cz) crystal pulling can have an important impact on gate oxide integrity (GOI) for present day high quality silicon substrates. A pronounced effect of the crystal pulling conditions on GOI is indeed observed for gate oxide thicknesses between 10 and 100 nm as was already reported more than 20 years ago [1]. Beginning of the 1980’s the link with microdefects grown-in in the silicon substrate was already made [2,3] but it was only the last five years that this correlation has been studied extensively [e.g. 4–9]. Due to the low density and small size of these grown-in defects, few techniques are available to study their nature which is therefore not yet well understood. Recently, powerful tools based on light scattering using visible [10], near [11] and mid infra red [12] light have become available and allow to reveal the minute lattice defects present in as-grown silicon substrates.


Defect Density Wafer Surface Gate Oxide Increase Cool Rate Gate Oxide Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Li, S.P. and Maseijian, J. (1976) Effective defect density for MOS breakdown: dependence on oxide thickness, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-23, 525–527.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Itsumi, M. and Kiyosumi, F. (1982) Origin and elimination of defects in Si02 thermally grown on Czochralski silicon substrate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40,496–498.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamabe, K., Taniguchi, K. and Matsushita, Y. (1983) Thickness dependence of dielectric breakdown failure of thermal Si02 films, Proceedings of IRPS, IEEE New York, 184–190.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Itsumi, M., Nakajima, O. and Shiono, N. (1992) Oxide defects originating from Czochralski silicon substrates, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2185–2191.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zemke, D., Gerlach, P., Zulehner, W. and Jacobs, K. (1994) Investigations on the correlation between growth rate and gate oxide integrity of Czochralski-grown silicon, Journal of Crystal Growth 139, 37–46.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Satoh, Y., Murakami, Y., Furuya, H. and Shingyouji, T. (1994) Effect of bulk microdefects induced in heat-treated Czochralski silicon on dielectric breakdown of thermal Si02 films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 303–305.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park, J.-G., Ushio, S., Takeno, H., Cho, K.-C., Kim, J.-K. and Rozgonyi, G.A. (1994) Comparison of oxide breakdown mechanisms due to D-defects and oxygen precipitates, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume 94-33, 53–64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    v. Ammon, W., Ehlert, A., Lambert, U., Gräf, D., Brohl, M. and Wagner, P. (1994) Gate oxide related bulk properties of oxygen doped floating zone and Czochralski silicon, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume 94-10, 136–147.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fusegawa, I., Takano, K., Kimura, M. and Fujimaki, N. (1995) Review of the influence of micro crystal defects in silicon single crystals on gate oxide integrity, Material Science Forum Vols. 196–201, 1683–1690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wagner, P. (1995) Automated surface inspection of bare polished silicon surfaces with light scattering techniques, Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume 95-30, 236–251.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moriya, K. (1989) Observation of micro-defects in as-grown and heat treated Si crystals by infrared laser scattering tomography, Journal of Crystal Growth 94,182–196ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Voronkov, V.V., Zabolotskiy, S.E., Kalinushkin, V.P., Murin, D.I., Ploppa, M.G. and Yuryev, V.A. (1990) Application of elastic IR light scattering for investigation of large-scale electrically active defects in semiconductors, Journal of Crystal Growth 103,126–130.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kissinger, G., Vanhellemont, J., Graf,, D., Claeys, C. and H. Richter (1996) IR-LST a powerful tool to observe crystal defects in as-grown silicon, after device processing, and in heteroepitaxial layers, Inst.. Phys. Conf. Ser., in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yamagashi, H., Fusegawa, I., Fujimaki, N. and Katayama, M. (1992) Recognition of D defects in silicon single crystals by preferential etching and effect on gate oxide integrity, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, A135–A140.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vanhellemont, J., Kissinger, G., Gräf, D., Kenis, K., Depas, M., Mertens, P., Lambert, U., Heyns, M., Claeys, C., Richter, H. and Wagner, P. (1995) Lattice defects in high quality as-grown Cz silicon, studied with light scattering and preferential etching techniques, Materials Science Forum Vols. 196–201, 1755–1760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vanhellemont, J., Kissinger, G., Gräf, D., Kenis, K., Depas, M., Mertens, P., Lambert, U., Heyns, M., Claeys, C., Richter, H. and Wagner, P. (1996) Light scattering tomography study of lattice defects in high quality as-grown Cz silicon wafers and their evolution during gate oxidation, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., in press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dornberger, E. and von Ammon, W. (1996) Dependence of ring like distributed stacking faults on the axial temperature gradient of growing Czochralski silicon crystals, J. Electrochem. Soc., in press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ryuta, J., Morita, E., Tanaka, T. and Shimanuki, Y. (1992) Effect of crystal pulling rate on formation of crystal-originated particles on Si wafers, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L293–L295.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brohl, M., Gräf, D., Wagner, P., Lambert, U., Gerber, H.A. and Piontek,H. (1994) Monitoring of crystal bulk defects on polished Si (l00)-surfaces, The Electrochem. Soc. Extended Abstracts 94-2, 619–620.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee, J.C., Chen, I.C. and Hu, C. (1988) Modelling and characterisation of gate oxide reliability, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2268–2278.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iwasaki, T., Harada, H. and Haga, H. (1995) Influence of point defect concentration in growing Cz-Si on the formation temperature of the defects affecting gate oxide integrity, Materials Science Forum Vols. 196–201, 1731–1736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vanhellemont, J. (1996) On the impact of interface energy and vacancy concentration on morphology changes and nucleation of silicon oxide precipitates in silicon, Appl. Phys. Lett., in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Vanhellemont
    • 1
  • G. Kissinger
    • 2
  • K. Kenis
    • 1
  • M. Depas
    • 1
  • D. Gräf
    • 3
  • U. Lambert
    • 3
  • P. Wagner
    • 3
  1. 1.IMECLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Institute for Semiconductor PhysicsFrankfurt(Oder)Germany
  3. 3.Wacker Siltronic AGBurghausenGermany

Personalised recommendations