Evolution and Emission of Cold, Warm and Hot Dust Populations in Diffuse and Molecular Clouds

  • J. Mayo Greenberg
  • Aigen Li
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 209)


The cyclic evolution of a multimodal interstellar grain population and its chemical, morphological and optical properties are described in terms of dust in molecular and diffuse clouds. The temperatures characteristic of the “large” tenth micron core-mantle particles, which dominate the mass of the dust and the extinction in the visual, are calculated. For typical situations the tenth micron particle temperatures range from 6 K to 15 K in cool molecular clouds and are about 16 K in diffuse clouds. The small (hundredth micron) hump particles and the very small FUV particles (large molecules) are not only warmer but, because of temperature fluctuations, emit radiation at much shorter wavelengths than the tenth micron particles. The model predicts that the relative proportion of small to large particles is larger in diffuse clouds than in molecular clouds so that the mid infrared emission in diffuse clouds is far higher than in molecular clouds. The core-mantle particles are significantly cooler than the graphite-silicate mixture and the emission peak is 70μm higher.


Molecular Cloud Dust Emission Interstellar Dust Extinction Curve Dust Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aannestad, P.A. & Kenyon, S.J., 1979, ApJ, 230, 771CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken, D.K., 1981, in: IAU Symposium 96, Infrared Astronomy, Wynn-Williams, C.G. & Cruikshank, D.P. (eds), Dordrecht: Reidel, p.207Google Scholar
  3. Andriesse, C.D, 1978, A&A, 66, 169ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernard, J.P., Boulanger, F., Desert, F.X. & Puget, J.L., 1992, A&A, 263, 258ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Block, D.L., Bertin, G., Stiction, A., et al, 1994a, A&A, 288, 365ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Block, D.L., Witt, A.N., Grosbol, P., et al, 1994b, A&A, 288, 383ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohren, C.F. & Huffman, D.R., 1983, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Boulanger, F. & Perault, F., 1988, ApJ, 330, 964CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bussoletti, E., Colangelli, L. & Orofino, V., 1987, ApJ, 321, L87CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Chase, M.W., Davis, C.A., Downey, J.R., Frurip, D.J., McDonald, R.A. &Syverud, A.N., 1985, J. Phys. Chem. ref. Data, 14, Suppl. No.1Google Scholar
  11. Cherchneff, I., Barker, J.R. & Tielens, A.G.G.M., 1991, ApJ, 377, 541CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Chlewicki, G. & Greenberg, J.M., 1990, ApJ 365, 230CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. de Groot, M., van der Zwet, G.P., Jenniskens, P., Bauer, R., Baas, F. & Greenberg, J.M., 1988, in: Dust in the Universe, Bailey, M.E. & Williams, D.A., Cambridge Press, p.265Google Scholar
  14. Desert, F.X., Boulanger, F. & Shore, S.N., 1986, A&A, 160, 295ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Desert, F.X., Boulanger, F. & Puget, J.L., 1990, A&A, 237, 215ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Dorschner, J., Begemann, B., Henning, Th., Jäger, C. & Mutschke, H., 1995, A&A, 300, 503ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Draine, B.T. & Lee, H.M., 1984, ApJ 285, 89CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Draine, B.T. & Anderson, N., 1985, ApJ, 292, 494CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Draine, B.T., 1988, ApJ 333, 848CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Draine, B.T., 1994, in: The Infrared Cirrus and Diffuse Interstellar Clouds, Cutri, R. & Latters, W.B. (eds), San Francisco, ASP Conference Series 58, p.227Google Scholar
  21. Eddington, A.S., 1926, Diffuse matter in interstellar space (Bakerian Lecture), Proc. Roy. Soc., 111A, p.424ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Fabbri, R., Guidi, I., Natale, V. & Ventura, G., 1986, in: Proc. of Marcel Grossman Meeting, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Fitzpatrick, E.L. & Massa, D., 1986, ApJ, 307, 286CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenberg, J.M., 1968, in: Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. VII, Middlehurst, B.M. & Aller, L.H. (eds.), University of Chicago Press, p. 221Google Scholar
  25. Greenberg, J.M., 1971, A&A 12, 240ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Greenberg, J.M.,& Shah, G.A., 1971, A&A 12, 250ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Greenberg, J.M., Yencha, A.J., Corbett, J.W., and Frisch, H.L., 1972, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sciences de Liege, 6e Serie, tome IV, p. 425Google Scholar
  28. Greenberg, J.M., 1973, in: Molecules in the Galactic Environment, Gordon, M.A., & Snyder, L.E.(eds.), Wiley, p. 94Google Scholar
  29. Greenberg, J.M. & Hong, S.S., 1974a, in: HII regions and the Galactic center, Moorwood, A.F.M. (ed), ESRSOSP-105, p.153Google Scholar
  30. Greenberg, J.M. & Hong, S.S., 1974b, in: IAU Symposium 60, Galactic and Radio Astronomy, Kerr, F. & Simonson, S.C. (eds), Dordrecht: Reidel, p.155Google Scholar
  31. Greenberg, J.M. & Hong, S.S., 1976, in: Far Infrared Astronomy, (ed) Rowan-Robinson, Pergamon Press, p.299Google Scholar
  32. Greenberg, J.M., 1978, in: Cosmic Dust, McDonnell, J.A.M.(ed.), Wiley, p.187Google Scholar
  33. Greenberg, J.M., 1980, in: Les Spectres des Molecules Simples au Laboratoire et en Astrophysics, Universite de Liege, p.555Google Scholar
  34. Greenberg, J.M. & Chlewicki, G., 1983, ApJ, 272, 563CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Greenberg, J.M. & Li, A., 1995, in: The Opacity of Spiral Disks, eds. J.I. Davies and D. Burstein, Dordrecht, Kluwer, p. 19Google Scholar
  36. Greenberg, J.M. & Li, A., 1996, A&A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  37. Greenberg, J.M., Li, A., Mendoza-Gómez, C.X., Schutte, W.A., Gerakines, P.A., de Groot, M., 1995, ApJ, 455, L177CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Guhathakurta, P. & Draine, B.T., 1989, ApJ, 345, 230CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Henning, Th. & Stognienko, R., 1996, A&A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  40. Hong, S.S., Greenberg, J.M., 1980, A&A 88, 194ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Jenniskens, P. 1993, A&A 274, 653ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Jenniskens, P. & Greenberg, J.M., 1993, A&A, 274, 439ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Lange, A.E., et al, 1989, in: Interstellar Dust (IAU Symp. 135), eds. Allamandola, L.J. & Tielens, A.G.G.M., Kluwer, Dordrecht, p.499Google Scholar
  44. Laureijs, R.J., Clark, F.O. & Prusti, 1991, ApJ, 372, 185CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Leger, A. & d’Hendecourt, L., 1987, in: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Astrophysics, Leger et al (eds), p.223Google Scholar
  46. Leger, A., d’Hendecourt, L. & Defourneau, D., 1989a, A&A, 216, 148ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Leger, A., et al., 1989b, in: Interstellar Dust (IAU Symp. 135), eds. Allamandola, L.J. & Tielens, A.G.G.M., Kluwer, Dordrecht, p.173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Low, F.J., et al, 1984, ApJ, 278, L19CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Mathis, J.S., Rumpl, W., Nordsieck, K.H., 1977, ApJ 217, 425CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Mathis, J.S., Mezger, P.G., & Panagia, 1983, A&A 128, 212ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Mathis, J.S., 1990, ARA&A, 28, 37CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Maxwell-Garnett, J.C., 1904, Phil.Trans.R.Soc., London, 203A, 385ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Mezger, P.G., Mathis, J.S. & Panagia, 1982, A&A 105, 372ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Mendoza-Gomez, C.X., de Groot, M., Greenberg, J.M. 1995, A&A 295, 479ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Pajot, F., Boisse, P., Gispert, R., Lamarre, J.M. & Puget, J.L., 1986, A&A, 157, 393ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Price, J., 1981, AJ, 86, 193CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Purcell, E.M., 1976, ApJ, 206, 685CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Puget, L.J. & Leger, A., 1989, ARA&A, 27, 161CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Sakata, A., Wada, S., Tanabe, T. & Onaka, T., 1984, ApJ, 287, L51CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Savage, B.D. & Mathis, J.S., 1979, ARA&A, 17, 73CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Schutte, W. & Greenberg, J.M., 1992, A&A 244,190ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Schutte, W., Tielens, A.G.G.M. & Allamandola, L.J., 1993, ApJ, 415, 397CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Schutte, W.A., 1996, in: The Cosmic Dust Connection, Greenberg, J.M.(ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, in pressGoogle Scholar
  64. Sellgren, K., 1984, ApJ, 277, 623CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Siebenmorgen, R. & Krügel, E., 1992, A&A, 259, 614ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Van de Hulst, H.C., 1957, Light Scattering by Small Particles, WileyGoogle Scholar
  67. Völk, H.J., Jones, F.C., Morfil, G.E. & Rosen, S., 1980, A&A, 85, 316ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Wright, E.L., et al, 1991, ApJ, 381, 200CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Mayo Greenberg
    • 1
  • Aigen Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory AstrophysicsUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations