An Attempt at Tetraploid Triticale Improvement
Since 1982 a small 4x triticale breeding programme has been carried out, aiming at creation of new lines with fertility, vigour and feeding value close to the 6x triticale cultivars and with the rye level of adaptation to marginal soil and weather conditions.
In order to keep the same chromosome composition, only one line of 4x triticale was used in crossing with 6x triticale. F1 hybrids with 6x triticale were back-crossed to 4x triticale one or two times. The resulting populations with 50%, 25% and 12.5% of the new genes were bred separately. The breeding method was based on gene circulation between outcrossing bulks and individual selection plots.
Tetraploid triticales kept the triticale level of resistance to diseases and nutritional properties of the grain. Kernel filling in the advanced lines was not worse than in 6x triticale. On an average, survival of seedlings on the acid media with high Al ions concentrations was higher for 4x lines than for 6x triticale cultivars. Yield potential has improved much in comparison to the initial primary 4x triticale line, however it is still unsatisfactory (maximum 60% of 6x triticale MALNO check in 1989, on 5m2 plots). Sterility is still the main problem.
KeywordsInbreeding Depression Wheat Chromosome Chromosome Constitution Triticale Breeding Secondary Line
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