MARKAL Model with Elastic Demands: Application to Greenhouse Gas Emission Control

  • Richard Loulou
  • Denis Lavigne
Part of the Economics, Energy and Environment book series (ECGY, volume 5)


MARKAL (Fishbone and Abilock, 1981; Berger et al, 1992) is a multi-period bottom-up model of energy-environment systems characterized by the high degree of disaggregation in the representation of the energy/technology options. MARKAL computes a competitive partial equilibrium on the energy market, where the endogenous energy prices are equal to the marginal values of the energy forms, and where demands for energy services are exogenously set by scenario. MARKAL is used in more than 20 countries, many of them members of the ETSAP consortium, which operates under implementing agreements from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Recent applications of MARKAL have focused on the analysis of Greenhouse Gas emission control (Kram, 1993).


Price Elasticity Demand Curve Elastic Demand Energy Service International Energy Agency 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publisher 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Loulou
    • 1
  • Denis Lavigne
    • 1
  1. 1.GERAD and McGill UniversityCanada

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