In these step-by-step procedures for problem solving there is emphasis on possible associated signs and symptoms that may point to an endocrine disturbance. History and physical examination are directed to the detection of endocrine disease, for which a form may be helpful.1 When the suspicion of an endocrine disturbance arises, such a hypothesis can be tested by specific examinations.


Hair Follicle Growth Hormone Deficiency Hair Growth ACTH Secretion Increase Energy Demand 
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  1. 1.
    Rijnberk A, Belshaw BE. Endocrine glands. In: Rijnberk A, De Vries HW, eds. Medical History and Physical Examination of Companion Animals. Dordrecht/Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995: 263–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rothuizen J, Mol JA. The pituitary-adrenocortical system in canine hepato-encephalopathy. Front Horm Res 1987; 17: 28–36.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothuizen J. Biewenga WJ, Mol JA. Chronic glucocorticoid excess and impaired osmoregulation of vasopressin release in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy. Domest Anim Endocrinol 1995; 12: 13–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Rijnberk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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