Regeneration and Transformation of Apple (Malus pumila Mill.)

  • David J. James
  • Abhaya M. Dandekar


In recent years the formulation of high efficiency, reproducible in vitro regeneration protocols for apple [1–4] has paved the way for the introduction of novel genetic information (genes) via non-sexual methods. There are now an array of transformation procedures that can be adopted; Agrobacterium -mediated transformation [5], direct or forced DNA uptake into protoplasts [6], and the use of DNA-coated microprojectiles and their introduction into regenerable plant tissue [7]. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has so far been the most successful and reproducible method for a number of crops including apple [8] and this paper will be concerned only with this aspect.


Leaf Disc Glycine Betaine Apple Cultivar Putative Transformants Adventitious Shoot Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. James
    • 1
  • Abhaya M. Dandekar
    • 2
  1. 1.Horticulture Research International East MallingWest Malling, KentUK
  2. 2.Department of PomologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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