Silicon carbide (SiC) is not uncommonly referred to as ‘carborundum’. This vernacular term commemorates a word coined by Edward G. Acheson in 1892 to describe crystals that he made in an experiment which had the real goal of making a diamond-like crystal from carbon and alundum (Acheson, 1893). Using a primitive electric furnace of his own design, he in fact made Sic. Acheson immediately designed a more efficient electric furnace and soon a profitable business with the jewelry trade was established. A century later, the furnaces used to make almost all Sic world-wide follow his original design concept.


Silicon Carbide Rice Hull Petroleum Coke Power Intensity Furnace Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheson, E.G. (1893) Carborundum: its history, manufacture and uses. J. Franklin Inst., 136, 194–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson, E.G. (1895) Production of artificial crystalline carbonaceous materials. US Patent Reissue No. 11,473.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, G.T. (1989) Abrasive materials, in Minerals Yearbook, US Bureau of Mines, pp. 77–96.Google Scholar
  4. Baumann, H.N. (1952) The relationship of alpha and beta silicon carbide. J. Electrochem. Soc., 99, 109–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler, G.M. (1952) Electric furnace silicon carbide production. J. Electrochem. Soc., 99, 51C–54C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheape, C.W. (1985) Family Firm to Modern Multinational, Norton Company, a New England Enterprise, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  7. Colson, A. (1882) Some new carbosilicic compounds. C.R. Acad. Sci, 94, 1316–18.Google Scholar
  8. Cowles, E.H. and Cowles, A.H. (1885) Electric smelting furnace. US Patent 319,945.Google Scholar
  9. Despretz, C.M. (1849) Fourth note on the fusion and volatilization of bodies. C.R. Acad. Sci., 29, 709–24.Google Scholar
  10. Drowart, J. and De Maria, G. (1960) Thermodynamic study of the binary system carbon-silicon using a mass spectrometer, in Silicon Carbide, A High Temperature Semiconductor (eds J.R. O’Connor and J. Smiltens), Pergamon, New York, pp. 16–23.Google Scholar
  11. Eardley-Wilmot, V.L. (1929) Artificial Abrasives and Manufactured Abrasive Products and their Uses, F.A. Acland, Ottawa, pp. 6–14.Google Scholar
  12. Exolon-ESK (1990) Carbolon, July, 1–2, Exolon-ESK Company, Hennepin, IL.Google Scholar
  13. Exolon-ESK (1991) Carbolon, March, 1–2, Exolon-ESK Company, Hennepin, IL.Google Scholar
  14. Finlay, G.R. (1952) Calculated energy requirements of electric furnace products. Chem. Canada, 14(2), 25–28.Google Scholar
  15. Friesen, L. (1994) A century of SiC. Ceram. Indust., Feb., 41–44.Google Scholar
  16. Hamilton, D.R. (1960) Preparation and properties of pure silicon carbide, in Silicon Carbide, A High Temperature Semiconductor (eds J.R. O’Connor and J. Smiltens), Pergamon, New York, pp. 43–52.Google Scholar
  17. Jepps, N.W. and Page, T.F. (1983) Polytypic transformations in silicon carbide. J. Cryst. Growth Character., 7, 259–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kistler-De Coppi, P. A. and Richarz, W. (1986) Phase transformations and grain growth in silicon carbide powders. Int. J. High Technol. Ceram., 2, 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koehler, W.A. (1943) Principles and Applications of Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, Applications, Wiley, New York, pp. 443–47.Google Scholar
  20. Lee, J.G. and Cutler, I.B. (1975) Formation of silicon carbide from rice hulls. Ceram. Bull., 54(2), 195–98.Google Scholar
  21. Margrave, J.L. and Mamantov, G. (1967) High-temperature reactions, in High Temperature Materials and Technology (eds I.E. Campbell and E.M. Sherwood), Wiley, New York, p. 88.Google Scholar
  22. Marsden, R.S. (1880) Crystallization of silica from fused metals. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 11, 37–41.Google Scholar
  23. McMullen, J.C. (1957) A review of patents on silicon carbide furnacing. J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 462–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mehrwald, K.H. (1967) Die Rolle von NaCl bei der Technischen SiC-Herstellung. Ber. Dtsch. Keram. Ges., 44, 148–55.Google Scholar
  25. Moser, M. (1980) Microstructures of Ceramics, Structure and Properties of Grinding Tools, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 119–39.Google Scholar
  26. Nagamori, M., Malinsky, I. and Claveau, A. (1986) Thermodynamics of the Si-C-O system for the production of silicon carbide and metallic silicon. Met. Trans. B, 17, 503–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parche, C. (1964) Silicon carbide, in Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd edn, Wiley, New York, pp. 114–32.Google Scholar
  28. Poch, W. and Dietzel, A. (1962) The formation of silicon carbide from silicon dioxide and carbon. Ber. Deut. Keram. Ges., 39, 413–26.Google Scholar
  29. Porter, R.F. (1967) High-temperature vapor species, in High Temperature Materials and Technology (eds I.E. Campbell and E.M. Sherwood), Wiley, New York, p. 74.Google Scholar
  30. Rahaman, M.N., Boiteux, Y. and De Jonghe, L.C. (1986) Surface characterization of silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders. Ceram. Bull., 65(8), 1171–76.Google Scholar
  31. Scace, R.I. and Slack, G.A. (1960) The Si-C and Ge-C phase diagrams, in Silicon Carbide, A High Temperature Semiconductor (eds J.R. O’Connor and J. Smiltens), Pergamon, New York, pp. 24–30.Google Scholar
  32. Seider, R.J., Guichelaar, P.J. and Anderson, R.O. (1987a) Production of silicon carbide with automatic separation of a high grade fraction. US Patent 4,659,022.Google Scholar
  33. Seider, R.J., Guichelaar, P.J. and Anderson, R.O. (1987b) Automatic method for separating and cleaning silicon carbide furnace materials. US Patent 4,686,032.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, C.W., Llewellyn, T.O. and Sullivan, G.V. (1995) Silicon carbide, flotation recovery, in Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design (ed. J.J. McKetta), Vol. 50, Wiley, New York, pp. 172–78.Google Scholar
  35. Smoak, R.H., Korzekwa, T.M., Kunz, S.M. and Howell, E.D. (1978) Silicon carbide, in Kirk-Othmer: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 4, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 520–35.Google Scholar
  36. Tone, F.J. (1908) Use of waste gases. US Patent 908,357.Google Scholar
  37. Tuset, J. Kr. and Raaness, O. (1976) Reactivity of reduction materials for the production of silicon, silicon-rich ferroalloys and silicon carbide, in 34th Electric Furnace Conference Proceedings, ISS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, pp. 101–07.Google Scholar
  38. Vanderbilt, B.M. (1974) Inventing: How the Masters Did It, Moore Publishing, Durham, NC, p. 187.Google Scholar
  39. Versteegen, J.M. and Dalmijn, W.L. (1990) Concentration of silicon carbide with a density process. Min. Metall. Process., 8, 136–40.Google Scholar
  40. Wei, G.C. (1983) Beta SiC powders produced by carbothermic reduction of silica in a high-temperature rotary furnace. Comm. Am. Ceram. Soc., C-111–13.Google Scholar
  41. Weimer, A.W., Nilsen, K.J., Cochran, G.A. and Roach, R.P. (1993) Kinetics of carbothermal reduction synthesis of beta-silicon carbide. AIChE J., 39(3), 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wiebke, G., Korsten, A., Benecke, T. and Petersen, F. (1979) Collector apparatus for gaseous reaction products. Canadian Patent 1,066,019.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip J. Guichelaar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical EngineeringWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations