Abstract

The concept of phase transfer catalysis, which was coined by Starks [1], has been widely applied to the synthesis of organic compounds. Regen reported that ammonium salts immobilized on cross-linked polystyrene resins are effective catalysts for phase transfer reactions [2]. Around the same time, polymer-supported phosphonium salts, macrocyclic polyethers, polar solvent residues and or poly(ethylene glycol)s also were reported to be effec­tive phase transfer catalysts [3-5]. These reaction systems consist of three- phase mixtures containing an aqueous salt solution (liquid phase), an organic solution (liquid phase) and a swollen polymer catalyst (solid phase) and have been called liquid-liquid-solid (L-L-S) triphase reactions (catalysis). In common L-L-S triphase reactions with stirring, the organic phase and the solid catalyst disperse in the continuous aqueous phase (Fig. 13.1).

Keywords

Crown Ether Phase Transfer Intraparticle Diffusion Intra Particle Diffusion Polymer Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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  • M. Tomoi

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