PCR-RFLP Analysis of Chloroplast DNA of Various Gymnosperms: A Rapid Tool for Assessing Genetic Variation at the Above-Species Level

  • Birgit Ziegenhagen
  • Matthias Fladung


The divergence in the sequence of chloroplast genes is considered to proceed more slowly than the divergence of nuclear genes (1). Thus, polymorphisms of chloroplast genes have commonly been used as genetic markers for studies at above the species level. Many investigations of chloroplast gene polymorphism have been made using RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms), a procedure which involves time-consuming hybridization steps (for examples, see reference (2) and for RFLP protocols, see Chapter 6). More rapid and efficient exploitation of chloroplast DNA polymorphism can, however, be achieved by means of PCR based techniques.


Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Chloroplast Gene Restriction Fragment Pattern Restriction Site Polymorphism Single Restriction Site 
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© Chapman & Hall 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Birgit Ziegenhagen
  • Matthias Fladung

There are no affiliations available

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