Mineral Additions for Cement Production

  • Wieslaw Kurdowski


The mineral additions can be divided into hydraulic, pozzolanic and almost inert filer. The latent hydraulic is granulated blastfurnace slag which however has simultaneously pozzolanic properties. Pozzolanas can be divided into artificial and natural. Artificial are mainly fly ash and in minor degree burned shale or metakaolin, but there are several natural pozzolanas, among others zeolite are of high interest. The highest pozzolanic reactivity has silica fume. As filer the most popular is limestone, which is not totally inert, reacting with aluminate ions with formation of carbo–aluminate hydrates [see Sect.]

Granulated blastfurnace slag properties are linked with glass content and its chemical composition, but its hydraulic activity is influenced also by aluminium coordination in glass. Slag cement has several advantageous properties; the most important are low heat of hydration and resistance to different kinds of corrosion, chiefly due to advantageous pore structure.

From different fly ash siliceous is the most popular and, due to high glass content, its influence is in some degree similar to granulated slag. The uncombusted coal is a harmful component. The introduction in some power plants fluidised bed combustion and gas desulphurisation change the properties of fly ash. Portland fly ash cements have the advantages similar to slag cement, however, to assure similar early strength to Portland cement much higher fineness is needed. The concretes from these cements have lower drying shrinkage.


Portland Cement Silica Fume Pozzolanic Reaction Interfacial Transition Zone Granulate Blastfurnace Slag 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instytut Szkła I Materiałów BudowlanychKrakówPoland

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