Advertisement

Cement Hydration

  • Wieslaw Kurdowski
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter contains two sections: 4.1. Cement hydration at room temperature and 4.2. Hydration of cement in hydrothermal conditions. In the first section the cement paste composition and its changes with time is presented, and the influence of gypsum, as well as its optimum content. Then the accelerators and retarders are discussed, even such untypical as zinc, lead and phosphadte, with the mechanism of their action. Very important are calcium carbonate, used as mineral addition to cement, as well as potassium sulphate, formed in clinker in modern rotary kiln. In the last time the chromium reducers and grinding aids are introduced frequently to cement, thus their influence is also important.

The hydration of Portland cement at 25–100 °C does not differ essentially from that at lower temperatures, but the reactions are accelerated. In hydrothermal condition and especially autoclave processes gives great changes of hydrated calcium silicates phases formed; principally C–S–H is transformed in 1.1 tobermorite, xonotlite and gyrolite can crystallize and in mixtures with higher C/S ratio also afwillite and hillebrandite. The structure of basic phases and chemistry of solid solutions is presented as well as the influence of heating rate.

Keywords

Calcium Silicate Hydrate Calcium Hydroxide Hydration Degree Potassium Sulphate Initial Setting Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Lea, F.M.: The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, 3rd edn. Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York (1971)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mortureux, B., Hornain, H., Regourd, M.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. IV, p. 570. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cottin, B., Vibert, C.: Cement–Wapno–Gips. 43, 193 (1976)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delmas, P.: Rev. Mav. Constr. 702, 291 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roberts, M.H.: Inv. Symp. On Admixtures for Mortar and Concrete. Brussels, Report II/1, pp. 5–29. (1967)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bombled, J.P.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. III, pp. IV–164. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bailey, J.E., Hampson, C.J.: Cem. Concr. Res. 12, 227 (1982)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Locher, F.W.: Cement, Principles of Production and Use. Verlag Bau + Technik GmbH, Düsseldorf (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. I, p. 82. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Longuet, P., Burglen, L., Zelwer, A.: Rev. Mav. Constr. 676, 35 (1973)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glasser, F.P., Marr, J.: Proc. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 35, 419 (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glasser, F.P., Marr, J.: Il Cemento. 82, 85 (1985)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tang, F.J., Gartner, E.M.: Adv. Cem. Res. 1, 67 (1988)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dalgleish, B.J., Pratt, P.L., Toulson, E.: Mater. J. Sci. 17(8), 2199 (1982)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scrivener, K.L., Pratt, P.L.: Proc. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 35, 207 (1984)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pratt, P.L., Ghose, A.: Phil. Tranp. Roy. Soc. London, A310, 93 (1983)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harrisson, A., Winter, N.B., Taylor, H.F.W.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. IV, p. 170. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Locher, F.W., Richartz, W.: 6th ICCC Moskwa, vol. II/1, p. 122. Moscow (1974)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stark, J., Moser, B., Bellmann, F.: 11th ICCC Durban, vol. 1, p. 261. Durban (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Raymont, D.L., Lachowski, E.E.: Cem. Concr. Res. 14, 43 (1984)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor, H.F.W., Roy, D.M.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. I, p. II–2/1. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Cem. Concr. Res. 3, 41 (1973); 6, 623 (1976); J. Appl. Chem. Biotechnol. 22, 1125 (1972)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pauri, M., Monosi, S., Moriconi, G., Collepardi, M.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 125. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taylor, H.F.W., Newbury, D.E.: Cem. Concr. Res. 14, 93 (1984)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh, N.B., Singh, A.K., Singh, P.S.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 101. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vernet, C., Dermoulian, E., Goudrin, P., Hawthorn, F.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. II, pp. II–219. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taylor, H.W.F.:Cement Chemistry. Academic Press, London (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Locher, F.W., Richartz, W., Sprung, S.: Zement–Kalk–Gips 33, 271 (1980)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Diamond, S.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. IV, p. 113. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Collepardi, M., Corradi, M., Baldini, G., Pauri, M.: Il Cemento. 75, 169 (1978)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hampson, C.J., Bailey, J.E.: Mater. J. Sci. 17(11), 3341 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hampson, C.J., Bailey, J.E.: Mater. J. Sci. 18(2), 402 (1983)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brown, P.W., Libermann, L.O., Frohnsdorff, G.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67(12), 793 (1984)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cottin, B.: Il Cemento. 75, 177 (1978)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jawed, L., Skalny, J., Young, J.F: In: Barnes, P. (ed.) w Structure and performance of cements, p. 250. Appl. Science Publ., London (1983)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frigione, G.: In: Ghosh, P.N. (ed.) w Advances in cement technology, p. 485. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1983)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Menetrier, D., Jawed, L., Skalny, J.: Cem. Concr. Res. 10, 697 (1980)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Odler, I.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. IV, p. 493. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bentur, A.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 210 (1976)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ost, B.W.: Am. Cer. Soc. Bull. 53, 579 (1974)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Venuat, M.: Adjuvants et traitements des mortiers et betons. M. Venuat, Paris (1971)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haskell, W.E.: Rock Products. 62, 108 (1959)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kurdowski, W., Garbacik, A., Chłądzyński, S.: Cement Wapno Beton. 71, 81 (2004)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sprung, S.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 27, 259 (1974)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jawed, L., Skalny, J.: Cem. Concr. Res. 8, 37 (1978)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Altsed, H.C.: Nielsen Rock. Prod. 77, 72 (1974)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hallich, K.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 33(9), 443 (1980)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jelenić, J., Panowic, A., Bezjak, A.: Cem. Concr. Res. 10, 463 (1980)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Le Jean: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. II, p. 11. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Venuat, M.: 6th ICCC Moskwa, vol. II/2, p. 109. Moskwa (1974)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brunauer, S.: Patent USA, no. 3, 689, 294 (1972)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yudenfreund, M., Odler, I., Brunauer, S.: Cem. Concr. Res. 2, 313, 331, 463, 577, 731 (1972)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Odler, I., Skalny, J., Brunauer, S.: 6th ICCC, vol. II, p. 30. Moskwa (1974)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Massazza, F.: In: Gosh, P.N. (ed.) Advances in cement technology. p. 569. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1983)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Cem. Concr. Res. 6, 623 (1976)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dusmuradov, T., Kantsepolski, J.S.: Uzb. chim. Ż. 18, 55 (1974)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chiesi, C.W., Myers, D.M., Gartner, E.M.: 14th Inv. Conf. On Cement Microscopy, Costa Mesa, USA (1992)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Calcium chloride in concrete. Appl. Science Publ., London (1976)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tenoutasse, N.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 20, 459 (1967); 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 372. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Orchard, D.F.: Concrete Technology, vol. l. Applied Science Publ., London (1973)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kurdowski, W., Miśkiewicz, K.: Cem. Concr. Res. 15, 785 (1985)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    De Keyser, W.L., Tenoutasse, N.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 379. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Howie, R.A., Iliushin, W.W.: Nature. 269, 231 (1977)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ramachandran, V.S., Feldman, R.F.: Il Cemento. 75, 311 (1978)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Collepardi, M., Marchese, B.: Cem. Concr. Res. 2, 57 (1972)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Skalny, J., Odler, I.: Cem. Concr. Res. 2, 387 (1972)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Feldman, R.F., Sereda, P.J.: Mater. Constr. 1, 509 (1968)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stoch, L.: Minerały ilaste, Wyd. Geologiczne, Warszawa 1974. (in Polish)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tennis, P.D., Jennings, H.M.: Cem. Concr. Res. 30, 856 (2000)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Termochim. Acta. 3, 343 (1972)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Traetteberg, A., Ramachandran, V.S., Grattan–Bellew, P.E.: Cem. Concr. Res. 4, 203 (1974)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Odler, I., Skalny, J.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 362 (1971)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Collepardi, M., Marcialis, A., Solinas, V.: Il Cemento. 70, 83 (1973)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Garrault, S., Nachbaur, L., Nonat, A.: In: Przybylski, K. (ed.) w Ceramika, vol. 61. Pol. Tow. Ceram., Kraków (2000)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Guo Chengju.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 28. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kondo, R., Daimon, M., Sakai, E., Oshiyama, H.: J. Appl. Chem. Biotechnol. 27, 191 (1977)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Collepardi, M., Rossi, G., Spiga, M.C.: Ann. Chim. 61, 137 (1971)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Smith, J.R.: J. Am. Concr. Inst. 72, 607 (1975)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Cem. J. Civil. Eng. 5, 213 (1978)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alimov, P.S., Lelmiezch, N.A.: Izw. Sew–Kawk. Nauczn. Centra Wyp. Szk. Sier. Tiech. Nauk. 3, 26 (1975). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shideler, J.J.: J. Am. Concr. Inst. 48, 537 (1952)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hope, B.B., Manning, D.G.: J. Am. Concr. Inst. 68, 361 (1971)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bentur, A., Milestone, N.B., Young, J.F., Mindess, S.: Cem. Concr. Res. 9, 161 (1979)Google Scholar
  84. 83a.
    Justnes, H., Nygaard, E.C.: Cem. Concr. Rep. 25, 1766 (1995)Google Scholar
  85. 83b.
    Justnes, H., Nygaard, E.C.: Adv. Cem. Rep. 8, 101 (1996)Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    Hallauer, O.: Beton. 119 (1972)Google Scholar
  87. 85.
    Lieber, W.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 444. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Bruere, G.M.: Nature. 199, 4888 (1963)Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Young, J.F.: Cem. Concr. Res. 2, 415 (1972)Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Basz, P.M., Rakimbajew Sz, M.: Cemient. 11, 16 (1973)Google Scholar
  91. 89.
    Simeonow, J., Christowa, J., Zienowa, A.: Baustoffindustrie. 27 (1976)Google Scholar
  92. 90.
    Nocuń–Wczelik, W., Łój, G.: Cement–Wapno–Beton. 73, 285 (2006)Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Nocuń–Wczelik, W., Łój, G.: Cement–Wapno–Beton. 73, 343 (2006)Google Scholar
  94. 92.
    Pichniarczyk, P.: Non published dataGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Wenda, R., Kuzel, H.J.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 307. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Lieber, W., Richartz, W.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 25(9), 403 (1972)Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Cussino, L., Montenero, L., Negro, A.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 114. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    Tabikh, A.A., Miller, F.M.: Cem. Concr. Res. 1, 663 (1971)Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Diamond, S.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 273 (1971)Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    Schneider, H., Schonfelder, R.: Betonwerk Fertigteiltechnik. 2, 97 (1972)Google Scholar
  101. 99.
    Previte, R.W.: Cem. Concr. Res. 1, 301 (1971)Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Singh, N.B., Ojka, P.N.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. II, pp. II–100. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    Thomas, N.L., Birchall, J.D.: Cem. Concr. Res. 13, 830 (1983)Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    Thomas, N.L., Birchall, J.D.: Cem. Concr. Res. 14, 761 (1984)Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Milestone, N.B.: Cem. Concr. Res. 7, 45 (1977)Google Scholar
  106. 104.
    Young, J.F.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 256. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  107. 105.
    Mariampolski, N.A., Penczow, A.J., Sawaszkin, J.A.: Niefv. Choz. 10, 27 (1974)Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    Stadelman, C., Wieker, W.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. IV, p. 199. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    Berger, R.L., McGregor, J.D.: Cem. Concr. Res. 2, 43 (1972)Google Scholar
  110. 108.
    Young, J.F.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 65 (1970)Google Scholar
  111. 109.
    Czerkinski, J.S., Butt, T.S., Slipchenko, G.F., Chmielewska, T.A.: Izw. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Nieorg. Matier. 6(11), 2038 (1970) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  112. 110.
    Czerkinski, J.S., Slipchenko, G.F., Butt, T.S., Miagkova, M.A., Sirotkina, N.L., Chmelevska, T.A.: Kołłoid. Ż. 34(5), 738 (1972)Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    Baron, J.: Inv. Sem. On some aspects of admixtures and indust. by–products on the durability of concrete, Chalmers University of Technology, April 28–29 1986, Session IV: “Calcareous additives”Google Scholar
  114. 112.
    Regourd, M.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. I, p. 199. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  115. 113.
    Mortureux, B., Hornain, H., Regourd, M.: Colloque International Liaison Pâte de Ciment, Materiaux Associés A 64. Toulouse, France (1982)Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Jambor, J.: 7th ICCC Paris 1980, vol. IV, p. 487. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  117. 115.
    Cochet, G., Sorrentino, F.: w Progress In Cement and Concrete. In: Ghosh, P.N. (ed.) Mineral admixtures in cement and concrete, vol. 4, Chap. 7, p. 266. ABI Books, New Delhi (1993)Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    Livesey, P.: In: Swamy, R.N. (ed.) Proc. Inv. Conf. Blended Cements in Construction, p. 1. Sheffield (1991)Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    Grandet, J., Olivier, J.P.: Cem. Concr. Res. 10, 759 (1980)Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    Ramachandran, V.S., Zhang, Chun–Mei.: Durability of Build. Mat. 4(1), 45 (1986)Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    Nonat, A., Courault, A.Ch., Damidot, D.: Cement Wapno Beton. 68, 184 (2001)Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    Vernet, C.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 70. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  123. 121.
    Negro, A., Abbiati, G., Cussino, L.: ibid., vol. III, p. 109Google Scholar
  124. 122.
    Bensted, J.: World Cement Tech. 11, 395 (1980); 14, 383 (1983)Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    Matschei, T., Glasser, F.P.: 17 Intern. Baustofftag., vol. 1, p. 1–0219. Weimar (2009)Google Scholar
  126. 124.
    Matschei, T., Glasser, F.P.: 16 Intern. Baustofftag., vol. 1, p. 1–0389. Weimar (2006)Google Scholar
  127. 125.
    Chłądzyński, S., Garbacik, A.: Cementy wieloskładnikowe w budownictwie. Stowarzyszenie Producentów Cementu, Kraków (2008). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  128. 126.
    Chatterjee, A.K.: In: Ghosh, P.N. (ed.) w Advances in Cement Technology, p. 203. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1983)Google Scholar
  129. 127.
    Shebl, F.A., Helmy, F.M., Ludwig, U.: Il Cemento. 77, 51 (1980)Google Scholar
  130. 128.
    Shebl, F.A., Ludwig, U.: Il Cemento. 75, 449 (1978)Google Scholar
  131. 129.
    Gawlicki, M., Nocuń–Wczelik, W.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 183. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Grzymek, J.: Cement–Wapno–Gips. 18, 45 (1963); Pat. PRL nr. 44998, (1960). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  133. 131.
    Grzymek, J.: Proc. of the 7th Conference on the Silicate Industry, p. 265. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest (1965)Google Scholar
  134. 132.
    Sprung, S., Rechenberg, W.: Proc. Symp. Effect of Alkalies on Properties of Concrete, London Sepv. 1976, p. 109. CRCA, (1977)Google Scholar
  135. 133.
    Sudakas, L.G., Zozulja, R.A., Kokurkina, A.W., Sorokina, W.A.: Cemient. 12, 11 (1978). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  136. 134.
    Czernych, W.F., Azielicka, R.D., Ponomariew, J.F., Mandrykin, J.J.: Cemient. 5, 7 (1963). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  137. 135.
    Kurdowski, W.: Poradnik technologa przemysłu cementowego. Arkady, Warszawa (1981). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    Svedsen, J.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 31, 281 (1978)Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    Blaine, R.L.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. III, p. 83. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  140. 138.
    Calleja, J.C., Trivino, F.V.: Special Report 90, p. 145. Highway Research Board, Washington (1968)Google Scholar
  141. 139.
    Maycock, J.N., Skalny, J.: Termochim. Acta. 8, 167 (1974)Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    Kalousek, G.L.: J. Rep. NBS. 32, 285 (1944)Google Scholar
  143. 141.
    Stein, H.N.: J. Appl. Chem. 11, 474 (1961)Google Scholar
  144. 142.
    Yoshii, T., Sudoh, G.: Rev. 13th Gen. Meet. Cem. Assoc. Japan, p. 16. Tokyo (1959)Google Scholar
  145. 143.
    Mori, H., Minegishi, K., Ohta, T., Akiba, T.: Rev. 24th Gen. Meet. Cem. Assoc. Japan, p. 26. Tokyo (1970)Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    Ludwig, U.: 6th ICCC Moskwa, vol. II/1, p. 119. Moskwa (1974)Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    Niël, M.M.G.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 472. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    Steinour, H.H.: Portl. Cem. Asp. Rep. Dept. Bull. 98, Chicago (1958)Google Scholar
  149. 147.
    Hansen, W.C.: 4th ICCC Washington, vol. I, p. 387. Washington (1960)Google Scholar
  150. 148.
    Beke, B., Opoczky L.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 22, 541 (1969)Google Scholar
  151. 149.
    Rebinder, P.A.: Z. Phys. 72, 191 (1931)Google Scholar
  152. 150.
    Scheibe, W., Dallmann, W., Rosenbaum, A.: Silikattechnik. 2, 11 (1970)Google Scholar
  153. 151.
    Dombrowe, H., Drescher, G.: Silikattechnik. 7, 341 (1975)Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    Raymont, D.L.: Cem. Concr. Res. 12, 133 (1982)Google Scholar
  155. 153.
    Butt, J.M., Syczov, M.M., Timaszev, W.W.: Chimiczeskaja Tiechnołogija Wiażuszczich Matieriałow. Izd. Wysszaja Szkoła, Moskwa (1980). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  156. 154.
    El–Hemaly, P.A.S., Mitsuda, T., Taylor, H.F.W.: Cem. Concr. Res. 7, 429 (1977)Google Scholar
  157. 155.
    Cliff, G., Gard, J.A., Lorimer, G.W., Taylor, H.F.W.: Miner. Mag. 40, 113 (1975)Google Scholar
  158. 156.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: The Chemistry of Cements. Academic Press, London (1964)Google Scholar
  159. 157.
    Atkins, P.W.: Gibbs’s Phase Rule Can be Found in Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press (1998)Google Scholar
  160. 158.
    Magistri, M., Padovano, D.: Int. Cem. Rev. 10, 49 (2005)Google Scholar
  161. 159.
    Magistri, M., D’Arcangelo, P.: Bud. Technol. Architek. 9, 68 (2009)Google Scholar
  162. 160.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 1. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  163. 161.
    Gross, S.: Geol. Surv. Israel Bull. 70 (1977)Google Scholar
  164. 162.
    Roy, D.M., Harker, R.J.: 4th ICCC Washington, vol. I, p. 196. Washington (1960)Google Scholar
  165. 163.
    Roy, D.M.: Am. Min. 43, 1009 (1958)Google Scholar
  166. 164.
    Iler, R.K.: The Chemistry of Silica. Wiley, New York (1979)Google Scholar
  167. 165.
    Langton, C.A., White, E.L., Grutzeck, M.W., Roy, D.M.: 7th ICCC Paris, vol. III, p. Y145. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  168. 166.
    Gard, J.A., Taylor, H.F.W., Cliff, G., Lorimer, G.W.: Am. Min. 62, 365 (1977)Google Scholar
  169. 167.
    Luke, K., Taylor, H.F.W., Kalousek, G.L.: Cem. Concr. Res. 11, 197 (1981)Google Scholar
  170. 168.
    Gard, J.A., Luke, K., Taylor, H.F.W.: Cem. Concr. Res. 11, 659 (1981)Google Scholar
  171. 169.
    Lachowski, E.E., Murray, L.U., Taylor, H.F.W.: Miner. Mag. 43, 333 (1979)Google Scholar
  172. 170.
    Assarsson, G.O.: 4th ICCC Washington, vol. I, p. 190. Washington (1960)Google Scholar
  173. 171.
    Gard, J.A., Mitsuda, T., Taylor, H.F.W.: Miner. Mag. 40, 325 (1975)Google Scholar
  174. 172.
    Brylicki, W.: Tworzywa autoklawizowane ze szlamu poekstrakcyjnego zawierającego gamma C2S. Ph. D. Thesis, AGH, Kraków (1981). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  175. 173.
    Szuba, J.: Hydratacja rankinitu i wolastonitu w warunkach hydrotermalnych. Ph. D. Thesis, AGH, Kraków (1986). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  176. 174.
    Jernejćić, J., Jelenić, I.: Cem. Concr. Res. 4, 123 (1974)Google Scholar
  177. 175.
    Brunauer, S., Copelard, L.E., Brugg, R.H.: J. Phyp. Chem. 60, 112, 116 (1956)Google Scholar
  178. 176.
    Bellina, G., Hassan, M., Longuet, P.: Ciments, Betons, Plâtres, Chaux. 4/85–755, 245 (1985)Google Scholar
  179. 177.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: Miner. Mag. 41, 363 (1977)Google Scholar
  180. 178.
    Dyczek, J., Zeszyty Naukowe, AGH.: Ceramika Z. 42, Kraków (1979). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  181. 179.
    Gouda, G.R., Roy, D.M.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 412 (1976)Google Scholar
  182. 180.
    Nelson, E.B., Kalousek, G.L.: Cem. Concr. Res. 7, 687 (1977)Google Scholar
  183. 181.
    Marchese, B., Sersale, R.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. II, p. 133. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  184. 182.
    Mamiedow, Ch.S., Biełow, N.W.: Dokł. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 121, 720 (1958)Google Scholar
  185. 183.
    Tashiro, C., Kawaguchi, K.: 6th ICCC Moskwa, vol. II/1, p. 227. Moskwa 1974; Cem. Concr. Res. 7, 69 (1977)Google Scholar
  186. 184.
    Mitsuda, T., Taylor, H.F.W.: Cem. Concr. Res. 5, 203 (1975); Miner. Mag. 42, 229 (1978)Google Scholar
  187. 185.
    Kalousek, D.: Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 40, 236 (1961)Google Scholar
  188. 186.
    Diamond, S., White, J.L., Dolch, W.L.: Am. Min. 51, 388 (1966)Google Scholar
  189. 187.
    Gard, J.A.: Nature. 211, 1078 (1966)Google Scholar
  190. 188.
    Dent Glasser, L.S., Glasser, F.P., Taylor, H.F.W.: Quart. Rev. 16, 343 (1962)Google Scholar
  191. 189.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: J. Appl. Chem. 10, 317 (1960)Google Scholar
  192. 190.
    Taylor, H.F.W.: Acta Cryst. 8, 440 (1955)Google Scholar
  193. 191.
    Odler, J., Skalny, J.: J. Appl. Chem. Biotechnol. 23, 661 (1973)Google Scholar
  194. 192.
    Verbeck, G.: 4th ICCC Washington, vol. I, p. 453. Washington (1960)Google Scholar
  195. 193.
    Copeland, L.E., Kantro, D.L.: In: Taylor, H.F.W. (ed.) w The Chemistry of Cements, p. 313. Academic Press, London (1964)Google Scholar
  196. 194.
    Idorn, G.N.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. III, p. 411. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  197. 195.
    Clayden, N.J., Dobson, C.M., Growes, G.W., Rodger, P.A.: 8th ICCC Rio de Janeiro, vol. III, p. 51. Rio de Janeiro (1986)Google Scholar
  198. 196.
    Kalousek, G.L.: Mater. Rep. Stand. 5, 292 (1965)Google Scholar
  199. 197.
    Kalousek, G.L.: 3rd ICCC London, p. 334, London 1955; 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. III, p. 523. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  200. 198.
    Buckle, E.R., Taylor, H.F.W.: J. Appl. Chem. 9, 163 (1959)Google Scholar
  201. 199.
    Aithen, A., Taylor, H.F.W.: 4th ICCC Washington, p. 285. Washington (1960)Google Scholar
  202. 200.
    Kantro, D.L., Brunauer, S., Weise, C.H.: Portl. Cem. Ass. Rep. Dep. Bull. 140, Chicago (1961)Google Scholar
  203. 201.
    Lach, V., Bures, J.: 6th ICCC Moskwa, vol. II/2, p. 129. Moskwa (1974)Google Scholar
  204. 202.
    Luke, K., Taylor, H.F.W., Kalousek, G.L.: Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 58, 334 (1979)Google Scholar
  205. 203.
    Butt, M.J., Raszkowicz, L.N.: Cemient. 22, 21 (1956). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  206. 204.
    Harker, R.: Min. Mag. 34, 232 (1965)Google Scholar
  207. 205.
    Kurdowski, W., Pilch, M.: 9th ICCC New Delhi, vol. IV, p. 175. New Delhi (1992)Google Scholar
  208. 206.
    Aleksanderson, J.: Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute of Technology Stockholm, Proceedings, 43 (1997)Google Scholar
  209. 207.
    Ludwig, N.C., Pence, P.A.: J. Am. Constr. Inst. 52, 673 (1956)Google Scholar
  210. 208.
    Odler, J., Gebauer, J.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 55, 276 (1966)Google Scholar
  211. 209.
    Silchenko, L.A., Michajłov, M.W., Rebinder, P.A.: Dokł. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 167, 391 (1966). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  212. 210.
    Budnikow, P., Erschler, E.: Special Report 30. Highway Research Board, Washington (1966)Google Scholar
  213. 211.
    Keil, F., Narjes, A.: Zement–Kalk–Gips. 12, 126 (1959)Google Scholar
  214. 212.
    Kurdowski, W., Peukert, J., Mróz, H.: XXI Konferencja Naukowa Komitetu Inżynierii Lądowej, PAN i KNPZITB, p. 3. Krynica (1979). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  215. 213.
    Peukert, J.: VIII Konferencja Techniczna Przemysłu Betonów, Kruszywo–Cement–Beton, p. 166, Jadwisin (1978). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  216. 214.
    Kurdowski, W., Peukert, J.: Non published dataGoogle Scholar
  217. 215.
    Takemoto, K., Kato, H.: 5th ICCC Tokyo, vol. III, p. 563. Tokyo (1968)Google Scholar
  218. 216.
    Kurdowski, W., Szuba, J.: Il Cemento. 84, 107 (1987)Google Scholar
  219. 217.
    Hara, N., Inoue, N.: 7th ICCC, Paris, vol. III, p. IV–13. Paris (1980)Google Scholar
  220. 218.
    Luke, K., Taylor, H.F.W.: Cem. Concr. Res. 14, 657 (1984)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instytut Szkła I Materiałów BudowlanychKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations