Advertisement

What Is Resilience and How Does It Relate to the Refugee Experience? Historical and Theoretical Perspectives

  • Wade E. PickrenEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Migration book series (IPMI, volume 7)

Abstract

In this chapter, the historical and theoretical foundations of the construct of resilience in North American social sciences are examined. Although the contemporary use of the term did not emerge until the 1960s, there is a longer tradition of theorizing on topics that are conceptually related to resilience. In the 1980s, research that shaped our contemporary understanding of resilience was conducted. Developmental scientists from various disciplines now dominate the field, resulting in a major focus on children and youth while leaving a noticeable gap in understanding resilience in adulthood. Implications for understanding refugee resiliency are discussed.

Keywords

History of resilience concept Culture and resilience Resilience over time Resilience and societal norms 

References

  1. Albanese, C. L. (2007). A republic of mind and spirit: A cultural history of American metaphysical religion. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, G. W. (1955). Becoming. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Andrick, J. (2012). Delsartean hypnosis for girls’ bodies and minds: Annie Payson Call and the Lasell Seminary nerve training controversy. History of Psychology, 15(2), 124–144.Google Scholar
  4. Antonovsky A., & Sourani T. (1988). Family sense of coherence and family adaptation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50(1), 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004). An organizing framework for collective identity: Articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 80–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aycan, Z., & Berry, J. W. (1996). Impact of employment-related experiences on immigrants’ psychological well-being and adaptation to Canada. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 28, 240–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Beiser, M. (1999) Strangers at the gate: The ‘Boat People’s’ first ten years in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  9. Beiser, M. (2005) The health of immigrants and refugees in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, S30–45.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, H., & Colleen, R. (1997). The relationship between tenure, stress, and coping strategies of South African immigrants to New Zealand. South African Journal of Psychology, 27, 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Bhatia, S., & Ram, A. (2001). Rethinking ‘acculturation’ in relation to diasporic cultures and postcolonial identities. Human Development, 44, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carranza, M. E. (2007). Building resilience and resistance against racism and discrimination among Salvadorian female youth in Canada. Child and Family Social Work, 12, 390–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chryssochoou, X. (2000). Multicultural societies: Making sense of new environments and identities. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 10, 343–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1997). The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 797–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  17. Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARMSA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 199–217.Google Scholar
  18. DeFrain J. (1999). Strong families. Family Matters, 53, 6–13.Google Scholar
  19. Dooley, P. K. (2001). The strenuous mood: William James’ ‘Energies in Men’ and Jack London’s “The Sea-Wolf.” American Literary Realism, 34, 18–28.Google Scholar
  20. Dorazio-Migliore, M., Migliore, S., & Anderson, J. (2005). Crafting a praxis-oriented culture concept in the health disciplines: Conundrums and possibilities. Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine, 9, 339–360.Google Scholar
  21. Dunbar, H. F. (1935). Emotions and bodily changes: A survey of literature on psychosomatic relationships, 1910–1933. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fromm, E. (1947). Man for himself. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
  24. Garmezy, N. (1971). Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garmezy, N. (1973). Competence and adaptation in adult schizophrenic patients and children at risk. In S. R. Dean (Ed.), Schizophrenia: The first en Dean Award lectures (pp. 163–204). New York: MSS Information.Google Scholar
  26. Garmezy, N. & Devine, V. (1984). Project Competence: The Minnesota studies of children vulnerable to psychopathology. In N. F. Watt, E. J. Anthony, L. C. Wynne, & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective (pp. 289–303). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Greeff, A. P., & Human, B. (2004). Resilience in families in which a parent had died. American Journal of Family Therapy, 32, 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greeff, A. P., & Holtzkamp, J. (2007). The prevalence of resilience in migrant families. Family Community Health, 30, 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haan L. D., Hawley D. R., & Deal J. E. (2002). Operationalizing family resilience: A methodological strategy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 30, 275–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haley, B. (1978). The healthy body and Victorian culture. Cambridge: The Belknap.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Handlin, O. (1951). The uprooted: The epic story of the great migrations that made the American people. Boston: Grosset & Dunlap.Google Scholar
  32. Harrington, A. (2008). The cure within: A history of mind-body medicine. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  33. Hawley, D.R. (2000). Clinical implications of family resilience. American Journal of Family Therapy, 28, 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hermans, H. J. M., & Kempen, H. J. G. (1998). Moving cultures: The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society. American Psychologist, 53, 1111–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hong, Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Inman, A. G., Howard, E. E., Beaumont, R. L., & Walker, J. L. (2007). Cultural transmission: Influence of contextual factors in Asian Indian immigrant parents’ experiences. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. James, W. (1902). The varieties of religious experience. New York: Longman, Greens.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. James, W. (1907a). The energies of men. Philosophical Review, 16, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. James, W. (1907b). The Absolute and the strenuous Life. The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 4, 546–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Joseph, S. (2004). Client-centered therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 101–119.Google Scholar
  41. Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Korten, F. F., Cook, S. W., & Lacey, J. I. (1970). Psychology and the problems of society. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lazarus, R. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  44. Loss, C. P. (2002). Religion and the therapeutic ethos in twentieth century American history. American Studies International, 40, 61–76.Google Scholar
  45. Maddi, S. R. (1980). Personality theories: A comparative analysis. Homewood: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  46. Maddi, S. R. (2002). The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theorizing, research, and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 54, 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Markowitz, G., & Rosner, D. (2000). Children, race, and power: Kenneth and Mamie Clarks Northside Center. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  50. Mason, J. W. (1975). A historical view of the stress field. Journal of Human Stress, 1, 6–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Masten, A. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychology, 56, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Masten, A. S., Coatsworth, J. D., Neemann, J., Gest, S. D., Tellegen, A., & Garmezy, N. (1995). The structure and coherence of competence from childhood through adolescence. Child Development, 66, 1635–1659.Google Scholar
  53. McLaughlin, N. (1998). Why do schools of thought fail? Neo-Freudianism as a case study in the sociology of knowledge. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 34, 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Misra, G. (1994). Psychology of control: Cross-cultural considerations. Journal of Indian Psychology, 12, 8–45.Google Scholar
  55. Mittelman, B., & Wolff, H. G. (1942). Emotions and gastroduodenal function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 4, 5–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moynihan, D. (1965). The Negro family: A case for national action. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  57. Murray, H. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Nobles, W. W. (1972). African philosophy: Foundations for a Black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (pp. 18–32). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  59. Nwadiora, E., & Mcadoo, H. (1996). Acculturative stress among Amerasian refugees: Gender and racial differences. Adolescence, 31, 477–487.Google Scholar
  60. O’Leary, V. E., & Ickovics, J. R. (1995). Resilience and thriving in response to challenge: An opportunity for a paradigm shift in women’s health. Womens Health: Research on Gender, Behavior and Policy, 1, 121–142.Google Scholar
  61. Ouellette, S. C. (2012). Robert W. White: A life in the study of lives. In W. E. Pickren, D. A. Dewsbury, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in developmental psychology (pp. 171–184). New York: Psychology.Google Scholar
  62. Ouellete, S. C., Cassel, J. B., Maslanka, H., & Wong, L. M. (1995). GMHC volunteers and the challenges and hopes for the second decade of AIDS. AIDS Education and Prevention, 7(Suppl 5), 64–79.Google Scholar
  63. Park, R. J. (1994). A decade of the body: Researching and writing about the history of health, fitness, exercise, and sport, 1983–1993. Journal of Sport History, 21, 51–82.Google Scholar
  64. Phillips, L. (2000). Recontextualizing Kenneth B. Clark: An Afrocentric perspective on the paradoxical legacy of a model psychologist-activist. History of Psychology, 3, 142–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Phinney, J. S. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 63–81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  67. Phinney, J. S., & Devich-Navarro, M. (1997). Variations in bicultural identification among African American and Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 493–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pickren, W. E. (2003). Kurt Goldstein: Neurologist and philosopher of the organism. In G. Kimble & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology, (Vol. 5, pp. 127–139). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association & Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  70. Pickren, W. E., & Rutherford, A. (2010). A history of modern psychology in context. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  71. Pickren, W. E., & Schneider, S. F. (Eds.). (2005). Psychology and the National Institute of Mental Health: A historical analysis of science, practice, and policy. Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pieterse, J. (2009). Globalization and culture: Global mélange (2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  73. Roccas, S., & Brewer, M. B. (2002). Social identity complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 88–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodriguez, E. M., & Ouellette, S. C. (2000). Gay and lesbian Christians: Homosexual and religious identity integration in the members and participants of a gay-positive church. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39, 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  76. Roland, A. (1988). In search of the self in India and Japan: Toward a cross-cultural psychology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Roland, A. (2011). Journeys to Foreign Selves: Asians and Asian Americans in a Global Era. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Sadat, M. H. (2008). Hyphenating Afghaniyat in the Afghan diaspora. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 2, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sarason, S. B. (1981). An asocial psychology and a misdirected clinical psychology. American Psychologist, 36, 827–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1996). Psychological resources matter, no matter how you say it or frame it. The Counseling Psychologist, 24, 736–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schofield, W. (1969). The role of psychology in the delivery of health services. American Psychologist, 24, 565–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schwartz, S. J., Montgomery, M. J., & Briones, E. (2006). The role of identity in acculturation among immigrant people: Theoretical propositions, empirical questions, and applied recommendations. Human Development, 49, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Scott, D. (2001). Building communities that strengthen families. Family Matters, 58, 76–79.Google Scholar
  84. Selye, H. (1950). The physiology and pathology of exposure to stress. Montreal: Acta.Google Scholar
  85. Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  86. Silberberg, S. (2001). Searching for family resilience. Family Matters, 58, 52–57.Google Scholar
  87. Simich, L., Pickren, W. E., & Beiser, M. (2011). Resilience, acculturation and integration of adult migrants: Understanding cultural strengths of recent refugees. Final Report to Human Resources Skills Development, Canada.Google Scholar
  88. Sinha, J. B. P. (1990). The salient Indian values and their socio-ecological roots. Indian Journal of Social Science, 3, 477–488.Google Scholar
  89. Smith, W. C. (1939). Americans in the making: The natural history of the assimilation of immigrants. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  90. Sparer, P. J. (1956). Personality, stress, and tuberculosis. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  91. Taves, A. (1999). Fits, trances, and visions: Experiencing religion and explaining experience from Wesley to James. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Taylor, E. (1999). Shadow culture: Psychology and spirituality in America. Washington, DC: Counterpoint.Google Scholar
  93. Timotijevic, L., & Breakwell, G. M. (2000). Migration and threat to identity. Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 10, 355–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  96. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High Risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  97. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. White, J. L. (1972). Toward a Black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (pp. 43–50). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  99. Whorton, J. C. (1982). Crusaders for fitness: The history of American health reformers. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Whorton, J. C. (2002). Nature cures: The history of alternative medicine in America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Williams, R. L. (2008). A 40-year history of the Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi). Journal of Black Psychology, 34, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Faculty ExcellenceIthaca CollegeIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations