Mental Healthcare Policy for Refugees in Canada
Existing services do not meet the needs of refugees with physical or psychological difficulties. To promote health and to prevent the development of mental and physical illness in the refugee population there is a need for three areas of policy action: (1) Public policy that minimizes the impact of social risk factors for physical and mental illness; (2) Equitable access to a full range of health, social care and legal services that are capable of delivering appropriate and high quality care; and (3) Public bodies that organize to fulfill their duties under national and international law.
KeywordsMental health Mental illness Canada Refugees Policy development Health equity Social policy Health promotion Post-migration determinants Barriers to care
- Canadian Task Force on Mental Health. (1988). After the door has been opened: Mental health issues affecting immigrants and refugees in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Task Force on Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Chen, A. W., & Kazanjian, A. (2005). Rate of mental health service utilization by Chinese immigrants in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, 49–51Google Scholar
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2011). Canada facts and figures: Immigration Overview Permanent and Temporary Residents 2010. Ottawa, Ontario. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/menu-fact.asp. Accessed 15 July 2012.
- Cleveland, J., & Rousseau, C. (2012). Mental Health Impact of Detention and Temporary Status for refugee claimants under Bill C-31 CMAJ. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120282.Google Scholar
- Covey, D. (2007). Initial decision-making is still shockingly poor. Press release, 20 November. Refugee Council http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/news/press/2007/november/20071120.htm.
- Cutler, S. (2005). Fit to be detained? Challenging the detention of asylum-seekers and migrants with health needs. Bail for Immigration Detainees. www.biduk.org.
- Department of Psychiatry University of Toronto. (2012). Position Statement on the Interim Federal health program Cuts and Bill C-31. Department of Psychiatry University of Toronto website. http://www.utpsychiatry.ca/bill-c31-uoft-psychiatry-position-statement/. Accessed 23 July 2012.
- The Economist. (2010). Comments to “A smaller welcome mat”. http://www.economist.com/node/17733061/comments. Accessed 23 July 2012.
- Dyck, I. (2004). Immigration, place and health: South Asian women’s accounts of health, illness, and everyday life. Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis, No. 04–05Google Scholar
- Hansson, E., Tuck, A., Lurie, S., et al. (2010). Issues and options for improving services for immigrants refugee, ethno-cultural and refugee groups in Canada. Calgary: Mental Health Commission of Canada.Google Scholar
- Hansson, E., Tuck, A., Lurie, S., et al. (2012). Rates of mental illness and suicidality in Immigrant, Refugee, Ethno-cultural and racialized groups in Canada: A review of the Literature. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 57(2), 111–121Google Scholar
- Lewis, H. (2007). Destitution in Leeds. New York: Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust.Google Scholar
- Li, H. Z., & Browne, A. J. (2000). Defining mental illness and accessing mental health services: Perspectives of Asian Canadians. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 19, 143–159.Google Scholar
- Mental Health Commission of Canada. (2012). Changing directions, changing lives: The mental health strategy for Canada. Calgary: Author.Google Scholar
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2006a). State of the refugees: Human displacement in the new millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2006b). Refugees: victims of intolerance. Refugees, 142, issue 1. UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/publ/opendoc.pdf?tbl=PUBL&id=44508b222.
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2007). 2006 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons. http://www.unhcr.org/4676a71d4.html. Accessed 15 July 2012.
- Patel, B., & Kerrigan, S. (2004). Hungry and homeless. The Refugee CouncilGoogle Scholar
- Royal College of Psychiatrists. (2007). Improving services for refugees and asylum seekers: Position Statement. Royal College of Psychiatrists. http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/docs/Refugee%20asylum%20seeker%20consensus%20final.doc.
- Sadavoy, J., Meier, R., & Ong, A. Y. (2004). Barriers to access to mental health services for ethnic seniors: The Toronto study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 192–199.Google Scholar
- Save the Children. (2005). No Place for a Child. STC.Google Scholar
- The Sabawoon Afghan Family Education (SAFE) and Counselling Centre. (2003). Exploring the mental health needs of Afghans in Toronto. CERIS, Spring issue.Google Scholar
- The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. (2006). Out of the shadows at last. Ottawa: The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology.Google Scholar
- Wang, L. (2007). Ethnicity, spatial equity, and utilization of primary care physicians: A case study of Mainland Chinese immigrants in the Toronto CMA. CERIS—Metropolis Centre.Google Scholar
- Whitley, R., Kirmayer, L. J., & Groleau, D. (2006). Understanding immigrants’ reluctance to use mental health services: A qualitative study from Montréal. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 205–209.Google Scholar