Malingering: Definitional and Conceptual Ambiguities and Prevalence or Base Rates

  • Gerald Young
Chapter
Part of the International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine book series (LIME, volume 56)

Abstract

This chapter presents different approaches to the definition of malingering, such as the psychiatric and legal. It builds on the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association 2000) approach that involves both conscious, overt malingering and gross exaggeration for external incentives, such as financial gain. Malingering should be attributed only when the evidence is introconvertible. Psychological approaches are described that have conflated exaggeration, in general, with frank malingering. Other psychological approaches are presented that adhere to the traditional approach of pairing only gross exaggerations with outright malingering.

Keywords

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Related Context Social Security Administration Medically Unexplained Symptom External Incentive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allen III, L.M., R.L. Conder, P. Green, and D.R. Cox. 1997. CARB’97: Manual for the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias. Durham: CogniSyst.Google Scholar
  2. American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2007. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) practice guidelines for neuropsychological assessment and consultation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 21: 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR, 4th ed., text rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Porath, Y.S., and A. Tellegen. 2008/2011. MMPI-2-RF: Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Porath, Y.S., J.R. Graham, and A. Tellegen. 2009. The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity (FBS) Scale: Development, research findings, & interpretive recommendations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, D.T.R., and N.W. Nelson. 2010. DSM-5 and malingering: A modest proposal. Psychological Injury and Law 3: 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianchini, K.J., K.W. Greve, and G. Glynn. 2005. On the diagnosis of malingered pain-related disability: Lessons from cognitive malingering research. The Spine Journal 5: 404–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Binder, L.M. 1993. Portland Digit Recognition Test manual, 2nd ed. Portland: Private Publication.Google Scholar
  11. Binder, L.M., and S.C. Willis. 1991. Assessment of motivation after financially compensable minor head trauma. Psychology Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 3: 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boone, K.B. 2007. A reconsideration of the Slick et al. (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction. In Assessment of feigned cognitive impairment: A neuropsychological perspective, ed. K.B. Boone, 26–49. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Boone, K. 2011a. Somatoform disorders, factitious disorder, and malingering. In The little black book of neuropsychology: A syndrome-based approach, ed. M.R. Schoenberg and J.G. Scott, 551–565. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boone, K.B. 2011b. Clarification or confusion? A review of Rogers, Bender, and Johnson’s A critical analysis of the MND criteria for feigned cognitive impairment: Implications for forensic practice and research. Psychological Injury and Law 4: 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boone, K.B., X. Savodnik, S. Ghaffarian, A. Lee, D. Freeman, and N. Berman. 1995. Rey 15-item Memorization and Dot Counting scores in a ‘Stress’ claim worker’s compensation population: Relationship to personality (MCMI) scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51: 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, R.J. 2004. Psychological mechanisms of medically unexplained symptoms: An integrative conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin 130: 793–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bush, S.S., R.M. Ruff, A.I. Troster, J.T. Barth, S.P. Koffler, N.H. Pliskin, C.R. Reynolds, and C.H. Silver. 2005. Symptom validity assessment: Practice issues and medical necessity. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 20: 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Butcher, J.N., W.G. Dahlstrom, J.R. Graham, A. Tellegen, and B. Kaemmer. 1989. Manual for the restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI-2. An interpretive guide. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  19. Butcher, J.N., J.R. Graham, Y.S. Ben-Porath, A. Tellegen, W.G. Dahlstrom, and G. Kaemmer. 2001. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: Manual for administration and scoring, 2nd ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. Butcher, J.N., C.S. Gass, E. Cumella, Z. Kally, and C.L. Williams. 2008. Potential for bias in MMPI-2 assessments using the fake bad scale (FBS). Psychological Injury and Law 1: 191–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carone, D.A., and S.S. Bush. 2013a. Mild traumatic brain injury: System validity assessment and malingering. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Carone, D.A., and S.S. Bush. 2013b. Introduction: Historical perspectives on mild traumatic brain injury, symptom validity assessment, and malingering. In Mild traumatic brain injury: System validity assessment and malingering, ed. D.A. Carone and S.S. Bush, 1–29. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Chafetz, M.D. 2008. Malingering on the social security disability consultative examination: Predictors and base rates. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 22: 529–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chafetz, M.D. 2010. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 24: 1045–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chafetz, M.D. 2011. Reducing the probability of false positives in malingering detection of social security disability claimants. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 25: 1239–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chafetz, M.D., E. Prentkowski, and A. Rao. 2011. To work or not to work: Motivation (not low IQ) determines symptom validity test findings. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 26: 306–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Conder, R., L. Allen, and D. Cox. 1992. Computerized Assessment of Response Bias Test manual. Durham: Cognisyst.Google Scholar
  28. Dattilio, F.M., R.L. Sadoff, E.Y. Drogin, and T.G. Gutheil. 2011. Should forensic psychiatrists conduct psychological testing? Journal of Psychiatry and Law 39: 1–10.Google Scholar
  29. Delis, D.C., J.H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, and B.A. Ober. 1987. California Verbal Learning Test: Manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  30. Elhai, J.D., J.J. Sweet, L.M.G. Breting, and D. Kaloupek. 2012. Assessment in contexts that threaten response validity. In PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury, ed. J.J. Vasterling, R.A. Bryant, and T.M. Keane, 174–198. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Eliashof, B.A., and J. Streltzer. 2003. Psychological impairment. In Disability evaluation, 2nd ed, ed. S.L. Demeter and G.B.J. Andersson, 583–595. St Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, F.B. 2011. Introduction to practice matters special section on VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law 4: 169–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faust, D. (ed.). 2012. Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony, 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fishbain, D.A., R. Cutler, H.L. Rosomoff, and R.S. Rosomoff. 1999. Chronic pain disability exaggeration/malingering and submaximal effort research. Clinical Journal of Pain 15: 244–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frederick, R.I. 2012. Malingering/cooperation/effort. In Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony, 6th ed, ed. D. Faust, 229–247. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Garner, B.A. (ed.). 2009. Black’s law dictionary, 9th ed. St. Paul: West.Google Scholar
  37. Gavin, H. 1843. On feigned and factitious diseases, chiefly of soldiers and seamen; on the means used to simulate or produce them, and on the best modes of discovering imposters; being the prize essay in the class of military surgery, in the University of Edinburgh session, 1835–6, with additions. London: John Churchill.Google Scholar
  38. Gold, L.H., and D.W. Shuman. 2009. Evaluating mental health disability in the workplace: Model, process, and analysis. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Green, P. 2004. Manual for Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) user’s manual and program. Edmonton: Green’s.Google Scholar
  40. Green, P. 2005. Green’s Word Memory Test for Window’s: User’s manual. Edmonton: Green’s.Google Scholar
  41. Green, P., M.L. Rohling, P.R. Lees-Haley, and L.M. Allen III. 2001. Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants. Brain Injury 15: 1045–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Greiffenstein, M.F., W.J. Baker, and T. Gola. 1994. Validation of malingered amnesia measures with a large clinical sample. Psychological Assessment 6: 218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greve, K.W., J.S. Ord, K.J. Bianchini, and K.L. Curtis. 2009. Prevalence of malingering in patients with chronic pain referred for psychologic evaluation in a medico-legal context. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 90: 1117–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grote, C.L., E.K. Kooker, D.C. Garron, D.L. Nyenhuis, C.A. Smith, and M.L. Mattingly. 2000. Performance of compensation seeking and non-compensation seeking samples on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test: Cross-validation and extension of a standardization study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 22: 709–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heilbronner, R.L., J.J. Sweet, J.E. Morgan, G.J. Larrabee, S.R. Millis, and Conference Participants. 2009. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Consensus Conference Statement on the neuropsychological assessment of effort, response bias, and malingering. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 23: 1093–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heilbrun, K., T. Grisso, and A.M. Goldstein. 2009. Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Inman, T.H., C.D. Vickery, D.T.R. Berry, D.G. Lamb, C.L. Edwards, and G.T. Smith. 1998. Development and initial validation of a new procedure for evaluating adequacy of effort given during neuropsychological testing: The Letter Memory Test. Psychological Assessment 10: 128–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kane, A.W., and J.A. Dvoskin. 2011. Evaluation for personal injury claims. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. King, W.P. 1906. Perjury for pay: An expos of the methods and criminal cunning of the modern malingerer. Kansas City: The Burton.Google Scholar
  50. Larrabee, G.J. 2003. Detection of malingering using atypical performance patterns on standard neuropsychological tests. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 17: 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Larrabee, G.J. 2007. Introduction: Malingering, research design, and base rates. In Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits, ed. G.J. Larrabee, 3–13. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Larrabee, G.J. 2008. Aggregation across multiple indicators improves the detection of malingering: Relationship in likelihood ratios. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 22: 666–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Larrabee, G.J., S.R. Millis, and J.E. Meyers. 2009. 40 Plus or minus 10, a new magical number: Reply to Russell. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 23: 841–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee, T.T.C., J.R. Graham, M. Sellbom, and R.O. Gervais. 2012. Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale scores. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/a0026458.Google Scholar
  55. Lees-Haley, P.R., L.T. English, and W.J. Glenn. 1991. A Fake Bad Scale for the MMPI-2 for personal injury claimants. Psychological Reports 68: 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meehl, P.E., and A. Rosen. 1955. Antecedent probability and the efficiency of psychometric signs, patterns, or cutting scores. Psychological Bulletin 52: 194–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Merckelbach, H., and T. Merten. 2012. A note on cognitive dissonance and malingering. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 26: 1217–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Merckelbach, H., M. Jelicic, and M. Pieters. 2011. The residual effect of feigning: How intentional faking may evolve into a less conscious form of symptom reporting. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 33: 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller, H.A. 2001. M-FAST: Miller-Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, L., R.L. Sadoff, and F.M. Dattilio. 2011. Personal injury: The independent medical examination in psychology and psychiatry. In Handbook of forensic assessment: Psychological and psychiatric perspectives, ed. E.Y. Drogin, F.M. Dattilio, R.L. Sadoff, and T.G. Gutheil, 277–302. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Millis, S.R., and C.T. Volinsky. 2001. Assessment of response bias in mild head injury: Beyond malingering tests. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 23: 809–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Millis, S.R., S.H. Putman, K.M. Adams, and J.H. Ricker. 1995. The California Verbal Learning Test in the diction of incomplete effort in neuropsychological evaluation. Psychological Assessment 7: 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mish, F.C. (ed.). 2003. Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 11th ed. Springfield: Merriam-Webster.Google Scholar
  64. Mittenberg, W., C. Patton, E.M. Canyock, and D.C. Condit. 2002. Base rates of malingering and symptom exaggeration. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 24: 1094–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rogers, R. 1990. Models of feigned mental illness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 21: 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers, R. 2008. An introduction to response styles. In Clinical assessment of malingering and deception, 3rd ed, ed. R. Rogers, 3–13. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  67. Rogers, R., and S.D. Bender. 2012. Evaluation of malingering and related response styles. In Handbook of psychology: Vol. 11. Forensic psychology, 2nd ed, ed. I.B. Weiner, R.K. Otto, and R.K. Otto, 517–540. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Rogers, R., and A.A. Correa. 2008. Determinations of malingering: Evolution from case-based methods to detection strategies. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 15: 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rogers, R., and R.P. Granacher Jr. 2011. Conceptualization and assessment of malingering. In Handbook of forensic assessment: Psychological and psychiatric perspectives, ed. E.Y. Drogin, F.M. Dattilio, R.L. Sadoff, and T.G. Gutheil, 659–678. Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogers, R., R.M. Bagby, and S.E. Dickens. 1992. Structured interview of reported symptoms. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  71. Rogers, R., N.D. Gillard, D.T.R. Berry, and R.P. Granacher Jr. 2011. Effectiveness of the MMPI-2-RF validity scales for feigned mental disorders and cognitive impairment: A known-groups study. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 33: 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ruff, R.M., and C.W. Jamora. 2008. Forensic neuropsychology and mild traumatic brain injury. Psychological Injury and Law 2: 122–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sellbom, M., J. Toomey, D. Wygant, L. Kucharski, and S. Duncan. 2010. Utility of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) validity scales in detecting malingering in a criminal forensic setting: A known-groups design. Psychological Assessment 22: 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sharland, M.J., and J.D. Gfeller. 2007. A survey of neuropsychologists’ beliefs and practices with respect to the assessment of effort. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22: 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Slick, D.J., G. Hopp, E. Strauss, and G.B. Thompson. 1997/2005. Victoria Symptom Validity Test: Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  76. Slick, D.J., E.M.S. Sherman, and G.L. Iverson. 1999. Diagnostic criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction: Proposed standards for clinical practice and research. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 13: 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Slick, D.J., and E.M.S. Sherman. 2013. Differential diagnosis of malingering. In Mild traumatic brain injury: System validity assessment and malingering, ed. D.A. Carone and S.S. Bush, 57–72. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. Slick, D.J., J.E. Tan, E.H. Strauss, and D.F. Hultsch. 2004. Detecting malingering: A survey of experts’ practices. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19: 465–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Soliman, S., and P.J. Resnick. 2010. Feigning in adjudicative competence evaluations. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 28: 614–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sollman, M.J., and D.T.R. Berry. 2011. Detection of inadequate effort on neuropsychological testing: A meta-analytic update and extension. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 26: 774–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Spanos, N., B. James, and H. de Groot. 1990. Detection of simulated hypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 99: 179–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suls, J., and M.B. Howren. 2012. Understanding the physical-symptom experience: The distinctive contributions of anxiety and depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21: 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tisza, S.M., J.R. Mottl III, and D.B. Matthews. 2003. Current trends in workers’ compensation stress claims. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 16: 571–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tombaugh, T.N. 1996. TOMM: The Test of Memory Malingering manual. North Tonawanda/New York: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  85. United States v. Greer, 158 F.3d 228 (1998).Google Scholar
  86. VandenBos, G.R. (ed.). 2007. APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  87. Victor, T.L., K.B. Boone, J.G. Serpa, J. Buehler, and E.A. Ziegler. 2009. Interpreting the meaning of multiple symptom validity test failure. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 23: 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Von Hippel, W., and R. Trivers. 2011. The evolution and psychology of self-deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34: 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Warren, P.A. 2011. Prevalence of behavioral health concerns and systemic issues in disability treatment and management. In Behavioral health disability: Innovations in prevention and management, ed. P.A. Warren, 9–47. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wechsler, D. 1997. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd ed. WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  91. Widows, M.R., and G.P. Smith. 2005. Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomology. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  92. Williams, C.L., J.N. Butcher, C.S. Gass, E. Cumella, and Z. Kally. 2009. Inaccuracies about the MMPI-2 fake bad scale in the reply by Ben-Porath, Greve, Bianchini, and Kaufman (2009). Psychological Injury and Law 2: 182–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Worthen, M.D., and R.G. Moering. 2011. A practical guide to conducting VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law 4: 187–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wygant, D.B., J.L. Anderson, M. Sellbom, J.L. Rapier, L.M. Allgeier, and R.P. Granacher. 2011. Association of the MMPI-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales with structured malingering criteria. Psychological Injury and Law 4: 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Young, G. 2010. Causes in the construction of causal law: A psycho-ecological model. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 32: 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Young, G. 2014. Malingering, feigning, response bias in psychiatric/ psychological injury. Dordrecht: Springer SBM.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald Young
    • 1
  1. 1.Glendon CollegeYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations