Flow on the Surface of the Tracheal Lumen by Ciliary Motion of Asymmetric Axonemal Structures

Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 12)

Abstract

Recently, advances in optics and digital image processing techniques have been accompanied by an improvement in the visualization of biologically complex flow by using fluorescent particles, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). In addition, visualization of cellular ultrastructure using cryoelectron tomography has revealed the structural arrangements of cytoskeletal complexes and macromolecules in intracellular membranes and organelles. In this chapter, we focus on cilia-generated directional flow. Many eukaryotic cells have developed cilia, an organelle present on cell surfaces that enables motion and generates fluid flow on the cell surface. The complex flow and axonemal structure in mouse airways were previously not well understood. Here, we describe the flow field generated by asymmetric ciliary motion on the surface of sparsely distributed ciliated cells in mouse tracheal epithelial cells by the μ-PIV/PTV method. Moreover, we describe the axonemal structure of respiratory cilia by using data from cryoelectron tomography and image processing.

Keywords

Cilia Cryo-electron tomography Dynein Flagella Fluid flow Airway 

Abbreviations

MT

Microtubule

PCL

Periciliary liquid layer

IDA

Inner dynein arm

μ-PTV

Micro-particle tracking velocimetry

μ-PIV

Micro-particle image velocimetry

CF

Cystic fibrosis

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

QDs

Quantum dots

CCD

Charge-coupled device

EMCCD

Electron multiplier type CCD camera

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

ODA

Outer dynein arm

DRC

Dynein regulatory complex

IC

Intermediate chain

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Takashi Ishikawa and Khanh Huy Buy for helpful advice of cryoelectron tomography and image processing, Takuji Ishikawa and Takami Yamaguchi for discussion of ciliary flow, and Toshiki Yagi for advice of the phylogenetic analysis. We took some cryo electron microscopic images using Tecnai G3 Polara in the Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) from the JSPS (No. 24770145) to Hironori Ueno and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ‘‘Nanomedicine Molecular Science’’ (No. 24107504) to Hironori Ueno from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Function and Life SciencesAichi University of EducationKariyaJapan

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