Urban Climate—Impact and Interaction of Air Quality and Global Change

  • Stefan Emeis
  • Joachim Fallmann
  • Peter Suppan
Conference paper


Urban climate impacts on more than half of mankind. Two dominating features are urban heat islands and changed precipitation patterns. Urban climate features are linked to and interact with local and regional air quality and Global Change. Especially urban heat islands have negative impacts so that mitigation and adaptation strategies are desirable. This review will present some mitigation and adaptation strategies. The use of complex numerical models such as meso-scale chemistry transport models is strongly recommended in order to assess the effect of planned measures against urban heat islands and to estimate their impact on urban air quality.


Urban Heat Island Street Canyon Green Roof Secondary Circulation Solar Radiation Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Akbari H, Menon S, Rosenfeld A (2009) Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset CO2. Climatic Change 94:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chow WTL, Roth M (2006) Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore. Int J Climatol 26:2243–2260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crutzen PJ (2004) New directions: the growing urban heat and pollution “island” effect—impact on chemistry and climate. Atmos Environ 38:3539–3540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dandou A, Tombrou M, Akylas E, Soulakellis N, Bossioli E (2005) Development and evaluation of an urban parameterization scheme in the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). J Geophys Res 110:D10102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emeis S (2010) Measurement methods in atmospheric sciences. In situ and remote. Series: quantifying the environment, vol 1. Borntraeger, Stuttgart. XIV + p 257Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Emeis S (2011) Surface-based remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer. Series: atmospheric and oceanographic sciences library, vol 40. Springer, Heidelberg, X + p 174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fernando HJS, Lee SM, Anderson J, Princevac M, Pardyjak E, Grossman-Clarke S (2001) Urban fluid mechanics: air circulation and contaminant dispersion in cities. Environ Fluid Mech 1:107–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grell GA, Peckham SE, Schmitz R, McKeen SA, Frost G, Skamarock WC, Eder B (2005) Fully coupled ‘online’ chemistry in the WRF model. Atmos Environ 39:6957–6976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hong S-Y, Pan H-L (1996) Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon Weather Rev 124:2322–2339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martilli A, Clappier A, Rotach MW (2002) An urban surface exchange parameterisation for mesoscale models. Bound-Lay Meteorol 104:261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martilli A, Roulet Y-A, Junier M, Kirchner F, Rotach MW, Clappier A (2003) On the impact of urban surface exchange parameterisations on air quality simulations: the Athens case. Atmos Environ 37:4217–4231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Masson V (2000) A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models. Bound-Lay Meteorol 94:357–397MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miao S, Shen F, LeMone MA, Tewari M, Li Q, Wang Y (2009) An observational and modeling study of characteristics of urban heat island and boundary layer strutures in Beijing. J Appl Meteor Climatol 48:484–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norra S (2009) The astysphere and urban geochemistry—a new approach to integrate urban systems into the geoscientific concept of spheres and a challenging concept of modern geochemistry supporting the sustainable development of planet earth. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rotach MW (1993a) Turbulence close to a rough urban surface. Part 1: Reynolds stress. Bound-Lay Meteorol 65:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rotach MW (1993b) Turbulence close to a rough urban surface Part 2: Variances and gradients. Bound-Lay Meteorol 66:75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rotach MW (2001) Simulation of urban-scale dispersion using a lagrangian stochastic dispersion model. Bound-Lay Meteorol 99:379–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shepherd JM (2005) A review of current investigations of Urban-induced rainfall and recommendations for the future. Earth Interactions 9(12):27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Souch C, Grimmond S (2006) Applied climatology: Urban climate. Prog Phys Geog 30:270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    United Nations (2008) State of the world’s Cities 2008/2009—Harmonious cities. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). Earthscan, London. p 259., read Sept. 10, 2012

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyGarmisch-PartenkirchenGermany

Personalised recommendations