Using GIS to Derive Spatial Indicators of Pedestrian Exposure to Urban Traffic Noise
Pedestrians are particularly susceptible to urban environmental nuisances such as transport noise. While we have methods for measuring pedestrian noise exposures in specific locations, policy-makers also require larger-scale evidence on how their policies affect exposures. This paper assesses the role of pedestrian mobility on exposures of people living and working in different areas and using different travel modes at different times. Two GIS-based indicators measure exposure. Non-employed individuals are exposed along the routes to nearby locations and employed individuals are exposed on the walking sections of the optimal routes to work.
The indicators are applied in the assessment of the expansion of the road network and traffic in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The exposures of the non-employed have increased in central areas, affecting elderly residents. Areas above exposure standards tend to have employed populations with above-average qualifications while areas below standards have below-average qualifications. Areas above standards for both employed and non-employed individuals also have below-average qualifications.
KeywordsPublic Transport Noise Exposure Optimal Route Travel Mode Private Transport
This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. Thanks go to Steve Gibbons, Helena Titheridge and Andrew Lovett for their comments and suggestions.
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