Advertisement

Water Vulnerability with Population Growth in Metropolitan Areas of Developing Countries: An Interdisciplinary Approach

  • Silvana Audrá Cutolo
  • Giuliana Carolina Talamini
  • Juliane Gaviolli
  • Paulo Nascimento
  • Leandro Luiz Giatti
Conference paper

Abstract

This research shows the current situation in Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MR), the effects of demographic growth, internal migration, and social environmental conflicts and vulnerabilities of water availability and natural resources. We used data of research in water resources based on demographic and socioeconomic data provided by public institutions. Being assessed in relation to the uses of water in the São Paulo MR, seeking to identify areas of conflict arising from urban areas and their impacts on the vulnerability of ecosystems in water availability. São Paulo MR is composed of 39 cities with 19.5 million inhabitants in 7.9 million km2, of which 25 (64 %) cities are in watershed areas. In 2010, total water demand was 77.2 m3/sec. São Paulo MR has about 200 m3/sec of water per person/year, considered a high critical value, demonstrating the lack of water. These values are conflicting regarding the trend of migration to cities and suburbs of the average São Paulo MR, and the conurbation of the Campinas and Santos Metropolitan Regions, in which there is a competition for water uses of Piracicaba river basin near Campinas; and Santos RM, situated on the coastal area and with high groundwater availability. With the prominence of conflict and worse water availability, we consider the high dynamics of the Brazilian economy, with rising incomes associated with increased water consumption per capita in metropolitan areas.

Keywords

Water Availability Metropolitan Region Integrate Water Resource Management Virtual Water Squat Settlement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo- FAPESP for supports: Process No 2012/14160-7 for participation in the 11th Urban Environment Symposium em Karshuhe (DE), 2012 September 16–19; This work is supported by FAPESP (2010/20899-0) coordinated by Pr. Dr. Leandro Luiz Giatti in the research” Indicators of environmental sustainability and health for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo—An ecosystem approach to study at different holarchic levels”

References

  1. 1.
    Brockerhoff M, Brennan E (1998) The Poverty of Cities in Developing Regions. Popul Devel Rev 24(1):75–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cohen B (2006) Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in. Society 28(1–2):63–80Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cutolo SA, Talamini GC, Gaviolli J, Giatti LL (2011) Contribuição ao estudo interdisciplinar de situações e conflitos na bacia do Alto Tietê. 3º Encontro Internacional de Governança da Água. USP: PROCAM,Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ellis JB, Mitchell G (2006) Urban diffuse pollution: key data information approaches for the Water Framework Directive. Water and Environment Journal 20, (1): 19–26 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2006.00025.xGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giatti LL, Cutolo SA (2012) Access to water for human consumption and aspects of public health in the brasilian Amazon. In: Carolina Bilibio; Oliver Hensel; Jeferson Selbach. (Org.). Sustainable water management in the tropics and subtropics. Sustainable water management in the tropics and subtropics. Jaguarão/RS: Fundação Universidade Federal do Pampa/ UNICASSEL/ PGCUlt-UFMA, (3): 613–651Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IBGE (2010) Censo Demográfico e Contagem da População, IBGE. Available in http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/cd/cd2010sp.asp, www.ibge.br. Accessed October 12, 2011
  7. 7.
    IBGE (2010) Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios (2004–2008). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. www.ibge.br. Accessed October 12, 2011
  8. 8.
    Iglesias A, Garrote L, Flores F, Moneo M (2007) Challenges to Manage the Risk of Water Scarcity and Climate Change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management 21(5):775–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jenerette GD, Larsen L (2006) A global perspective on changing sustainable urban water supplies. Global Planet Change 50:202–211 . doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parkes MW, Morrison KE, Bunch MJ, Hallströmb LK, Neudoerffer R, Venema HD, Waltner-Toews D (2010) Towards integrated governance for water, health and social-ecological systems: The watershed governance prism Global Environmental Change 20 (2010) 693–704Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parkes MW, Horwitz P (2009) Water, ecology and health: ecosystems as settings for promoting health and sustainability. Health Promot Int 24(1):94–102. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dan044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (2009) Altered resources, disturbance, and heterogeneity: A framework for comparing urban and non-urban soils. Urban Ecosyst (12):23-44 DOI 10.1007/s11252-008-0047-xGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Postel SL (2000) Entering an era of water scarcity: the challenges ahead. Ecol Appl 10(4):941–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rheingans R, Dreibelbis R, Freeman MC (2006) Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Public health challenges in water and sanitation. Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice. 1 (1): 31–48 doi: 10.1080/17441690500443139Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ribeiro WC (2011) Oferta e estresse hídrico na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Estudos Avançados, 25 (71): 119-133 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103–40142011000100009
  16. 16.
    Silva TR, Porto MA (2003) Gestão urbana e gestão das águas: caminhos da integração. Estudos Avançados, 17 (47): 129–145, jan.-abr. 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103–40142003000100007
  17. 17.
    Tucci CEM (2010) Integrated urban water management in the humid tropics. In: Parkinson JA, Goldenfum JA, Tucci CEM. Integrated urban water management: humid tropics. UNESCO: Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–23Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tundisi JG (2008) Recursos hídricos no futuro: problemas e soluções. Estudos Avançados, 2008. Avaible in: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ea/v22n63/v22n63a02.pdf. Access in: 13 ago. 2012
  19. 19.
    UNESCO (2009) Water in a changing world. Available in: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/. Accessed October 8, 2011
  20. 20.
    UNESCO; WWAP (2003) Water for people, water for life. Barcelona: Berghann Books, 2003. Accessible in http://www.unesco.org/water/ wwap/wwdr1/pdf. Acess in 2011 August, 10
  21. 21.
    Wade TG, Riitters KH, Wickham JD, Jones KB (2003) Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology 7(2): 1–16. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss2/art7/ Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang H, Wan LG, Abbaspour KC, Zehnder AJB (2006) Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. (10): 443–454, doi.oai:hal.archives-ouvertes.fr:hal-00305004Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvana Audrá Cutolo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giuliana Carolina Talamini
    • 3
  • Juliane Gaviolli
    • 3
  • Paulo Nascimento
    • 3
  • Leandro Luiz Giatti
    • 3
  1. 1.São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Saúde PúblicUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento Prática de Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Saúde PúblicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations