Definitions and Classification of Agroforestry Systems

  • Alain Atangana
  • Damase Khasa
  • Scott Chang
  • Ann Degrande


Several definitions have been proposed to agroforestry, of which the most commonly used are those of Lundgreen and Raintree (Agricultural research for development: potentials and challenges in Asia, 1982, pp 37–49) and Leakey (Agroforest Today 8:1, 1996). Agroforestry is any land-use system, practice or technology, where woody perennials are integrated with agricultural crops and/or animals in the same land management unit, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. Agroforestry is also a dynamic and ecologically -based natural resource management system. Agroforestry refers to the deliberate introduction or retention of trees on farms to increase, diversify, and sustain production for increased social, economic, and environmental benefits. Agroforestry system classification can be based on vegetation structure, function of woody perennials in the system, levels of management input, and environmental conditions and ecological suitability of the system. Agroforestry practices rather than systems are also used as the unit of an ecologically -based classification that is rooted in the role of trees in agricultural landscape.


Agroforestry System Community Forestry Agroforestry Practice Silvopastoral System Woody Perennial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Atangana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Damase Khasa
    • 3
  • Scott Chang
    • 1
  • Ann Degrande
    • 4
  1. 1.Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Integrative and Systems BiologyUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  3. 3.Forest and Wood SciencesUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  4. 4.West and Central Africa Regional ProgramWorld Agroforestry CentreYaoundeCameroon

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