Agroforestry and the Carbon Market in the Tropics

  • Alain Atangana
  • Damase Khasa
  • Scott Chang
  • Ann Degrande
Chapter

Abstract

To slow the increase of the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases responsible for climate change, initiatives such as the United Nations REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) Programme have been taken. The UN-REDD programme supports REDD+ (i.e., conservation and sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of C stocks, on top of REDD) readiness efforts in the design and implementation of national programs and in national REDD+ action through common approaches and interventions. The REDD+ policies propose to financially compensate countries that improve forest conservation and management to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG; i.e., carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) emissions and mitigate against climate change. The REDD+ initiative has recently evolved to REDD++ (i.e., low carbon (C) emission or low C footprint land use systems through eco-agricultural practices on top of REDD+). Eco-agricultural practices, which aim at producing more food while conserving wild biodiversity, include agroforestry systems such as perennial tree-crop systems, windbreaks, and live fences. Agroforestry systems also store C and may qualify as an afforestation practice as is defined in the Kyoto Protocol, and could be included in the C market under the REDD+ scheme. The Kyoto protocol that deals with environmental issues, especially climate change, is heavily based on clean development mechanism (CDM) as a strategy to mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The inclusion of agroforestry in CDM is hampered by the lack of standardized methods to estimate C stocks, as well as land tenure issues in the tropics, especially in Africa. Another challenge for the inclusion of agroforestry to CDM is the payment for environmental (or ecosystem) services (PES) option that should be implemented in C contracts. This chapter discusses the opportunities for including agroforestry in C markets, as well as the difficulties and PES options linked to it.

Keywords

Agroforestry System Clean Development Mechanism Kyoto Protocol Land Tenure Forest Degradation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B (2007) Jatropha biodiesel fueling sustainability? Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 1:283–291. doi:10.1002/bbbCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achten WJM, Almeida J, Fobelets V, Bolle E, Mathijs E, Singh VP, Tewari DN, Verchot LV, Muys B (2010a) Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India. Appl Energy 87:3652–3660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Achten WMJ, Nielsen LR, Aerts R, Lengkeek AG, Kjaer ED, Trabucco A, Hansen JK, Maes WH, Graudal L, Akinnifesi FK, Muys B (2010b) Towards domestication of Jatropha curcas. Biofuels 1(1):91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aerst R, Chapin FS II (2000) The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns. Adv Ecol Res 30:1–67Google Scholar
  5. Albrecht A, Kandji ST (2003) Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 99(1–3):15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alden WL (2006) Land rights reform and governance in Africa: how to make it work in the 21st Century? UNDP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Azam MM, Waris A, Nahar NM (2005) Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesels in India. Biomass Energ 29:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond I, Chambwera M, Jones B, Chundama M, Nhantumbo I (2010) REDD+ in dryland forests: issues and prospects for pro-poor REDD in the miombo wooldands of southern Africa, Natural Resource Issues No. 21. IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Canadell JG, Le Quéré C, Raupach MR, Field CB, Buitenhuis ET, Ciais P, Conway TJ, Gillett BP, Houghton RA, Marland G (2007) Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity and efficiency of natural sinks. PNAS 104(47):18866–18870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapagain BP, Yehoshua Y, Wiesman Z (2009) Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Bioresour Technol 100:1221–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cole RJ (2010) Social and environmental impacts of payments for environmental servicesfor agroforestry on small-scale farms in southern Costa Rica. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 17(3):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costenbader J (2011) REDD+ benefit sharing: a comparative assessment of three national policy approaches, Forest Carbon Partnership/UN-REDD ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  13. Cousins B, Claasens A (2006) More than simply—socially embedded: recognizing the distinctiveness of African land rights. Keynote address at the international symposium on ‘at the frontier of land issues: social embeddedness of rights and public policy’. Montpellier, 17–19 May 2006Google Scholar
  14. Dhakal B (2009) Carbon liability, market price risk and social impact of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) programme. J For Livelihood 8(1):67–77Google Scholar
  15. Diaz D, Hamilton K, Johnson E (2011) State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2011. From Canopy to Currency. Forest Trend, p 93Google Scholar
  16. DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2010). Final Draft: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP). http://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp/node/65. Accessed 15 Aug 2011
  17. Flugge F, Abadi A (2006) Farming carbon: an economic analysis of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and dryland salinity reduction in Western Australia. Agrofor Syst 68:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Forest Trends (2002) Strategies for strengthening community property rights over forests: lessons and opportunities for practitioners. Forest Trends, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Galford GL, Melillo JM, Kicklighter DW, Cronin TW, Cerri CEP, Mustard JF, Cerri CC (2010) Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation aand agricultural management in the southern Amazon. PNAS 107:19649–19654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Häger A (2012) The effects of management and plant diversity on carbon storage in coffee agroforestry systems in Costa Rica. Agrofor Syst 86:159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hepburn S (2009) Carbon rights as new property: the benefits of statutory verification. Sydney Law Rev 31:239–271Google Scholar
  22. IPCC (2007) Glossary J-P. In (book section): Annex I. In: Climate Change 2007: Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz et al. Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.AGoogle Scholar
  23. Janudianto J, Mulyoutami E, Joshi L, Wardell DA, van Noordwijk M (2011) Recognizing traditional tree tenure as part of conservation and REDD strategy: feasibility study for a buffer zone between a wildlife reserve and the Lamandau river in Indonesia’s REDD Pilot Province. ASB Policy Brief No. 22. ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  24. Karsenty A, Vogel A, Castell F (2012) “Carbon rights”, REDD+ and payments for environmental services. Environmental Science and Policy. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.08.03Google Scholar
  25. Kim DG (2012) Estimation of net gain soil carbon in a nitrogen-fixing tree and intercropping system in sub-Saharan Africa: results from re-examining a study. Agrofor Syst 86:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kossoy A (2008) State and trends of the Carbon market. The World Bank. www.latincarbon.com/2008/docs/presentation/Days/AlexandreKossoy.pdf
  27. Kort J, Turnock R (1999) Carbon reservoir and biomass in Canadian prairie shelterbelts. Agroforestry Systems 44:175–186.Leakey RRB (2001) Win:win anduse strategies for Africa: 2. Capturing economic and environmental benefits with multistrata agroforests. Int For Rev 3:11–18Google Scholar
  28. Lal R (2008) Carbon sequestration. Phil Trans R Soc B 363(1492):815–830. (27 February 2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mather R (2010) Supporting REDD Implementation in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia through the Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System, Final reportGoogle Scholar
  30. Montagnini F, Nair PKR (2004) Carbon sequestration: an underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 61:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nair PKR (2011) Methodological challenges in estimating sequestration potential of agroforestry systems. Adv Agrofor 8(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nair PKR (2012) Carbon sequestration studies in agroforestry systems: a reality check. Agrofor Syst 86:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nair PKR, Mohan Kumar B, Nair VD (2009a) Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. J Plant Nutr Soil Sc 172:10–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nair PKR, Nair VD, Mohan Kumar B, Haile SG (2009b) Soil carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems: a feasibility appraisal. Environ Sci Policy 12:1099–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nair PKR, Nair VD, Mohan Kumar B, Showalter JM (2010) Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. Adv Agron 108:237–307. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(10)08005-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nelson KC, de Jong BHJ (2003) Making global initiatives local realities: carbon mitigation projects in Chiapas, Mexico. Global Environ Change 13:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paul KI, Polglase PJ, Nyakuengama JG, Khanna PK (2002) Change in soil following afforestation. For Ecol Manag 168(1–3):241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peskett L, Brodnig G (2011) Carbon rights in REDD+: exploring the implications for poor and vulnerable people. World Bank and REDD-netGoogle Scholar
  39. Richards M (2010) The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE): a tool for prioritizing sub-national REDD+ activities—case studies from Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda. Forest Trends, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. Scherr SJ, McNeely JA (2007) Ecoagriculture strategies for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation. Paper presented at the International Workshop on ‘Reconciling rural poverty and resource conservation: identifying relationships and remedies.’ May 2–3, 2003, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmitt-Harsh M, Evans TP, Castellanos E, Randolph JC (2012) Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands of Guatemala. Agrofor Syst 86:141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schoeneberger MM (2009) Agroforestry: working trees for sequestering carbon on agricultural lands. Agrofor Syst 75:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seeberg-Elverfeldt C, Schwarze S, Zeller M (2009) Carbon finance options for samllholders’ agroforestryin Indonesia. Int J Commons 3(1):108–130Google Scholar
  44. Shively GE, Zelek CA, Midmore DJ, Nissen TM (2004) Carbon sequestration in a tropical landscape: an economic model to measure itsincrement cost. Agrofor Syst 60:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Takimoto A, Nair PKR, Alavalapati JRR (2008) Socioeconomic potential of carbon sequestration through agroforestry in the West African Sahel. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 13:745–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tamang B, Andreu MG, Staudhammer CL, Rockwood DL, Jose S (2012) Equations for estimating aboveground biomass of cadaghi (Corymbia torelliana) trees in farms windbreaks. Agrofor Syst 86:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. TNC (The Nature Conservancy) (2009) Noel Kempff Mercado climate action project: a case study in reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation. TNC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  48. TNC (The Nature Conservancy) (2010) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): a casebook of on-the-ground experience, conservation international and wildlife conservation society. ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  49. Udawatta RP, Jose S (2011) Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in temperate North America. In: Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems: opportunities and challenges. Adv Agrofor 8. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1630-8_2 Springer Science+Business Media BVGoogle Scholar
  50. Unruh JD (2008) Carbon sequestration in Africa: the land tenure problem. Global Environ Change 18:700–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhou X, Brandle JR, Schoeneberger MM, Awada T (2007) Developing above-ground woody biomass equations for open-grown, multi-stemmed tree species: Shelterbelts-grown Russian olive. Ecol Model 202(3–4):311–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Atangana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Damase Khasa
    • 3
  • Scott Chang
    • 1
  • Ann Degrande
    • 4
  1. 1.Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Integrative and Systems BiologyUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  3. 3.Forest and Wood SciencesUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  4. 4.West and Central Africa Regional ProgramWorld Agroforestry CentreYaoundeCameroon

Personalised recommendations