Advertisement

On-Farm Agroforestry Research

  • Alain Atangana
  • Damase Khasa
  • Scott Chang
  • Ann Degrande
Chapter

Abstract

Agroforestry research aims to develop new practices or technologies and facilitate their adoption by farmers. Research on farms is done to address adoption issues, by allowing farmers to evaluate or adapt the technology being researched or tested in local conditions. On-farm research, which involves the participation of farmers in the technology generation process, is often used, depending on the objectives of the research, the nature of the questions being investigated, and local conditions, when conducting participatory farming systems, “farmer first”, or “augmented designs” research. Participatory farming systems research is the generation of technologies by involving technology users in the planning and evaluation process. Farmer first research is when farmers conduct the experimentation and analysis on agricultural innovation themselves, with facilitation and support from scientists. Lastly, augmented designs research involves experimental designs that take into account the participation of farmers, thereby allowing the estimation of farmer-augmented defined treatments. Wider dissemination of agroforestry technologies has been largely done through scaling-up approaches, some of which have facilitated the widespread adoption of fodder shrubs among smallholders in the highlands of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania. Techniques that have been successfully used include: (i) the collaboration of researchers with large Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) that promote fodder shrubs; (ii) large scale dissemination of facilitators who train trainers and provide support to extension workers; (iii) farmer-to-farmer dissemination; (iv) private seed vendors; and (v) civil society campaigns bringing together different stakeholders to train farmers by farmers. In the humid tropics of West and Central Africa, grassroots organizations were also effective in disseminating agroforestry innovations.

Keywords

Agroforestry System Agroforestry Research Agroforestry Adoption Agroforestry Technology Farming System Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Attah-Krah AN, Francis PA (1987) The role of on-farm trials in the evaluation of composite technologies: The case of alley farming in southern Nigeria. Agric Syst 23:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berr J (1991) Implementing on-farm agroforestry research: Lessons learned in Talamanca, Costa Rica. Agrofor Syst 15:229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byerlee DL, Harrington L, Winkelman DL (1982) Farming system research: Issue in research and technology design. Am J Agric Econ 64:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chambers R (1989) Farmers-first: A practical paradigm for the third-world agriculture. In: Altieri M, Hecht S (eds) Agroecology and Small Farm Development. CRC Press, Boca Rato. Pp. 237–244Google Scholar
  5. Chambers R (1994a) The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. World Dev 22(7):953–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chambers R (1994b) Participatory Research Appraisal (PRA): analysis of experience. World Dev 22(9):1253–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chambers R (1994c) Participatory Research Appraisal (PRA): Challenges, potentials and paradigms. World Dev 22(10):1437–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Damhofer I, Gibbon D, Dedieu B (2012) Farming systems research into the 12st century: the new paradigm. Springer. p. 490Google Scholar
  9. Degrande A, Franzel S, Siohdjie Yeptiep Y, Asaah E, Tsobeng A, Tchoundjeu Z (2012) Effectiveness of grassroot organisations in the dissemination of agroforestry innovations. In: Kaonga M (ed) Agroforestry for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services—Science and Practice. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. Pp. 142–164Google Scholar
  10. Franzel SC, Scherr SJ (2002) Trees on the farm: assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. p. 207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franzel S, Wambugu C (2007) The uptake of fodder shrubs among stakeholders in East Africa: Key elements that facilitate widespread adoption. In: Hare MD, Wongpichet K (eds) Forages: A pathway to prosperity for smallholder farmers. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratcha thani University, Thailand. Pp. 203–222Google Scholar
  12. Franzel S, Arimi HK, Murithi FM (2002a) Calliandra calothyrsus: Assessing the early stages of adoption of a fodder shrub in the highlands of Central kenya. In: Franzel SC (ed) Trees on the farm: Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Franzel S, Phiri D, Kwesiga F (2002b) Assessing the adoption potential of improved fallows in Eastern Zambia. In: Franzel SC, Scherr SJ (eds) Trees on the farm: Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Pp. 37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franzel SC, Scherr SJ, Coe R, Cooper PJM, Place F (2002c) Methods for assessing agroforestry adoption potential. In: Franzel SC, Scherr SJ (eds) Trees on the farm: Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Pp. 11–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hildebrand PE (1990) Modified stability analysis and on-farm research to breed specific adaptability for ecological diversity. In: Kang MS (ed) Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Plant Breeding. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Pp. 169–180Google Scholar
  16. Hildebrand PE, Russell JT (1996) Adaptability analysis. A method for the design, analysis and interpretation of on-farm research-extension. Iowa State University Press, IowaGoogle Scholar
  17. Hildebrand PE, Singh BK, Bellows BC, Campbell EP, Jama BA (1993) Farming systems research for agroforestry extension. Agrofor Syst 23:219–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glendimning A, Mahapatra A, Mitchell CP (2001) Modes of communication and effectiveness of agroforestry extension in eastern India. Human Ecol 29:283–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Schlabenberger O (2006) SAS for mixed models, 2nd edition. SAS Institute, Cary. 814 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Matata PZ, Masolwa LW, Ruvuga S, Bagarama FM (2013) Dissemination pathways for scaling-up agroforestry technologies in western Tanzania. J Agric Exten Rural Develop 5:31–36Google Scholar
  21. Mead R (1991) Designing experiments for agroforestry research. In: Avery M, Cannell MGR, Ong CK (eds) Biophysical research for Asian Agroforestry. Winrock International, Arlington. Pp. 3–20Google Scholar
  22. Mercer DE (2004) Adoption of Agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review. Agrofor Syst 61–62:311–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McGinty MM, Swisher ME, Alavalapati J (2008) Agroforestry adoption and maintenance: self-efficacy, attitudes and socio-economic factors. Agrofor Syst 73:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Montgomery DC (2012) Design and analysis of experiments. 8th ed. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Pinney A (1991) Farmer-augmented designs for participatory agroforestry research. Agrofor Syst 15:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raman A, Ladha JK, Kumar V, Sharma S, Piepho HP (2011) Stability analysis of farmers participatory trials for conservation agriculture using mixed models. Field Crop Resear 121:450–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Opio C, Jacob N, Khasa DP (2001) Factors affecting a sheep vegetation management system in British Columbia, Canada. Agrofor Syst 53:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rao MR, Coe R (1991) Measuring crop yields in on-farm agroforestry studies. Agrofor Syst 15:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rao MR, Coe R (1992) Evaluating the results of agroforestry research. Agrofor Today 4(1):4–9Google Scholar
  30. Russell JT (1991) Yield and yield stability of pure and mixed stands of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Varieties in North Cameroon. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  31. Scherr SJ (1991) On-farm research: The challenges of agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 15:95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scherr SJ (1995) Economic analysis of agroforestry systems: the farmers’ perspective. In: Current D, Lutz F, Scherr SJ (eds) Costs, benefits and farmer adoption of agroforestry: Project experience in Central America and the Caribbean. World Bank Environment Paper No 14. The World Bank, Washington, DC, pp 28–44Google Scholar
  33. Shaner WW, Philipp PF, Schmehl WR (1982) Farming system research and development: Guidelines for developing countries. Westview Press, Boulder, USAGoogle Scholar
  34. Swinkels RA, Franzel S, Shepherd KD, Ohlsson E, Ndufa JK (2002a) The adoption potential of short rotation improved tree fallows: Evidence from western Kenya. In: Franzel SC, Scherr SJ (eds) Trees on the farm: Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Pp. 65–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Swinkels RA, Shepherd KD, Franzel F, Nduka JK, Ohlsson E, Sjogren H (2002b) Assessing the adoption potential of hedgerow intercropping for improving soil fertility, Western Kenya. In: Scherr SJ (eds) Trees on the farm: Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry in Africa. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Pp. 89–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Toulmin C, Chambers R (1990) Farmer-first: achieving sustainable dryland development in Africa. International institute for environment and development. Issue Paper No 19Google Scholar
  37. Walker DH, Sinclair FL, Thapa B (1995) Incorporation of indigenous knowledge and perspective in agroforestry development. Part 1: review of methods and their application. Agrofor Syst 30:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wambugu C, Place F, Franzel S (2011) Research, development and scaling-up the adoption of fodder shrub innovations in East Africa. Int J Agric Sustain 9(1):100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Webber LM, Ison RL (1995) Participatory rural appraisal design: Conceptual and process issues. Agric Syst 47(1):107–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williams SE, van Noordwijk M, Penot E, Healey JR, Sinclair FL, Wibawa G (2001) On-farm evaluation of the establishment of clonal rubber in multistrata agroforests in Jambi, Indonesia. Agrofor Syst 53:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Atangana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Damase Khasa
    • 3
  • Scott Chang
    • 1
  • Ann Degrande
    • 4
  1. 1.Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Integrative and Systems BiologyUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  3. 3.Forest and Wood SciencesUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  4. 4.West and Central Africa Regional ProgramWorld Agroforestry CentreYaoundeCameroon

Personalised recommendations