Binder Chemistry – High-Calcium Alkali-Activated Materials

  • Susan A. Bernal
  • John L. Provis
  • Ana Fernández-Jiménez
  • Pavel V. Krivenko
  • Elena Kavalerova
  • Marta Palacios
  • Caijun Shi
Part of the RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports book series (RILEM State Art Reports, volume 13)


As mentioned in Chap. 2, the development and assessment of alkali-activated binders based on calcium-rich precursors such as blast furnace slag (BFS) and other Ca-rich industrial by-products have been conducted for over a century [1–3]. However, an increase in interest in the understanding of the microstructure of alkali-activated binders has taken place in the past decades. This has been driven by the need for scientific methods to optimise the activation conditions which give a strong, stable binder from a particular raw material, and consequently a high-performance alkali-activated material (AAM) concrete, while achieving acceptable workability and a low environmental footprint. A detailed scientific understanding of the structure of these materials is required to generate the technical underpinnings for standards which will facilitate their wider commercial adoption [4, 5].


Portland Cement Blast Furnace Slag Pore Solution Steel Slag Phosphorus Slag 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan A. Bernal
    • 1
    • 2
  • John L. Provis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Fernández-Jiménez
    • 3
  • Pavel V. Krivenko
    • 4
  • Elena Kavalerova
    • 4
  • Marta Palacios
    • 5
  • Caijun Shi
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Cements and Materials RecyclingInstituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (IETcc-CSIC)MadridSpain
  4. 4.V.D. Glukhovskii Scientific Research Institute for Binders and MaterialsKiev National University of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureKievUkraine
  5. 5.Institute for Building Materials (IfB), ETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  6. 6.College of Civil EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina

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