Advertisement

World Suffering Expands as Gaps in Care Widen

  • Ronald E. AndersonEmail author
Chapter
  • 865 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research book series (BRIEFSWELLBEING)

Abstract

Alternative approaches to the alleviation of suffering depend upon the type of suffering, but all types need to be addressed at both the individual and institutional levels. Adequate relief of social suffering however, depends largely on institutional solutions. The various dimensions of quality of suffering relief are listed and discussed. Data comparing inter-nations and inter-states are presented to show the misalignment between suffering and available care resources to potentially relieve those who suffer. Charts reveal that the countries high on suffering tend to be low on caring or charitable capacity, and vice versa. Suffering cannot be relieved without redistribution of care resources and without those with higher incomes contributing to charitable relief projects at least as much proportionately as those with lower incomes. Global inequality is a major cause of social suffering and widens gaps in care. Inequality in income-based residential segregation needs to be tackled as well. Despite some progress in reduction of suffering, global inequality has been growing steadily for at least two centuries. Major progress in reducing suffering depends upon making headway in turning around the recent alarming spike of global and national inequality.

Keywords

Caregiving  Care divide  Care gap  Caring  Charity  Compassion  Distant suffering  Ethics  Responsibility  Volunteering  Global inequality  World sufferingsuffering 

References

  1. Anderson, R. E. (2012). Caring capital websites. Information, Communication & Society 15(5), 479–501.Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, K. (2011). Twelve steps to a compassionate life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  3. Boltanski, L. (1993). Distant suffering: morality, media and politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. CAF (2006). International comparisons of charitable giving. Kent UK: Charities Aid Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2013 from http://www.cafonline.org/pdf/International%20Comparisons%20of%20Charitable%20Giving.pdf
  5. CAF (2012). World Giving Index 2012: A Global view of giving trends. Kent UK: Charities Aid Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2013 from https://www.cafonline.org/PDF/WorldGivingIndex2012WEB.pdf
  6. Cassell, E. J. (2004). The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, S. (2001). States of denial: Knowing about atrocities and suffering. Indianapolis, IN: Polity.Google Scholar
  8. Coleman, J. C. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.Google Scholar
  9. COP (2007). Patterns of household charitable giving. Bloomington, IN: Center on Philanthropy, Indiana University. (Based on 2005 data from the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Expenditure Survey).Google Scholar
  10. Dormandy, T. (2006). The worst of evil: The fight against pain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dowd, D. (2009). Inequality and the global economic crisis. NY, NY: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  12. English, C. (2011). Civic engagement highest in developed countries. Gallup World Report. Retrieved May 4, 2013 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/145589/civic-engagement-highest-developed-countries.aspx
  13. Fancher, R. (2003). Health and suffering in America: The context and content of mental health care. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Farmer, P. (1997). On suffering and structural violence: A view from below. In A. Kleinman, V. Das & M. Lock (Eds.), Social suffering. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Frank, R. H. (1999). Luxury fever: Why money fails to satisfy in an era of excess. New York, NY: Free Press, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  16. Frank, R. H. (2007). Falling behind: How rising inequality harms the middle class. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gennetian, L. A., Ludwig, J. Maude, T., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2013). Why concentrated poverty matters. Pathways. Google Scholar
  18. GHA (2012) GHA report 2012. Somerset, UK: Global Humanitarian Assistance. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/
  19. Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Glenn, E. N. (2000). Creating a caring society. Contemporary Society 29(1), 84–94.Google Scholar
  21. Glenn, E. N. (2010). Forced to care: Coercion and caregiving in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Goetz, J. L., Keltner, D., & Simon-Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 351–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hudson Institute (2009) The index of global philanthropy and remittances 2009. Hudson, NY: Center for Global Prosperity. Retrieved April 30, 2013 from http://www.hudson.org/files/documents/Index%20of%20Global%20Philanthropy%20and%20Remittances%202009.pdf
  24. James, R. N, I. I. I., & Sharpe, D. L. (2007). The nature and causes of the U-shaped charitable giving profile. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36, 218–238. doi: 10.1177/0899764006295993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johansson, S., Leonard, R., & Noonan, K. (2012). Caring and the generation of social capital: two models for a positive relationship. International Journal of Social Welfare, 12( 1), 44–52. Google Scholar
  26. Judt, T. (2010). Ill fares the land. New York, NY: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kanachi, I. (2002). Income inequality and economic residential segregation. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 56(3), 165–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keltner, D. (2009). Born to be good: The science of a meaningful life. NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  29. Keltner, D., Marsh, J., & Smith, J. A. (Eds.). (2010). The compassionate instinct. NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  30. Kleinman, A. (2011). Anthropology and cross-cultural mental health: the major questions for future research in global mental health (Slide presentation). Retrieved January 20, 2013 from http://www.segemi.de/files/kleinman_anthropology_cross-cultural_mental_health_6-2011_1_.pdf
  31. Kraus, M. W., Cote, S., & Keltner, D. (2010). Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy. Psychological Science, 21, 1716–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kraus, M. W., Piff, P. K., & Keltner, D. (2011). Social class as culture: The convergence of resources and rank in the social realm. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 100, 246–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. McGaghie, W. C., Mytko, J. J., Brown, W. N., & Cameron, J. R. (2002). Altruism and compassion in the health professions: a search for clarity and precision. Medical Teacher 24(4), 374–378.Google Scholar
  35. Nussbaum, M. (1996). Compassion: The basic social emotion. Social Philosophy & Policy. 13(1), 27–58.Google Scholar
  36. Nussbaum, M. (2001). Upheavals of thought: The intelligence of emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. OECD (2011). Society at a Glance 2011: OECD Social Indicators, Paris, FR: OECD Publishing. doi:  doi.org/10.1787/soc_glance-2011-en.
  38. Oliner, S. P. (2008). Altruism intergroup apology, forgiveness, and reconciliation. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.Google Scholar
  39. Oveis, C., Horberg, E. J., & Keltner, D. (2010). Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self—other similarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 618–630. doi: 10.1037/a0017628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Piff, P. K., et al. (2010). Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 771–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Piff, P. K., Stancato, D. M., Cote, S., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Keltner, D. (2012). Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (11), 4086–4091.Google Scholar
  42. Salvati, A. (2008). Altruism and Social Capital. Boca Raton: Universal Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sector, Independent. (2002). Giving and volunteering in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  44. Sorokin, P. A. (1950). Altruistic love. Boston, MA: The Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  45. Stellar, J. E., Manzo, V. M., Kraus, M. W., & Keltner, D. (2012). Class and compassion: Socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering. Emotion, 12(3), 449–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sznaider, N. (2001). The compassionate temperament: Care and cruelty in modern society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Taylor, S. E. (2006). Tend and befriend. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(6), 273–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taylor, P., & Fry, R. (2012). The rise of residential segregation by income. Washington, DC: Pew Social & Demographic Trends, Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  49. UNICEF. (2011). Global inequality: Beyond the bottom billion—A rapid review of income distribution in 141 countries. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
  50. Van Kleef, G. A., Oveis, C., van der Löwe, I., LuoKogan, A., Goetz, J., & Keltner, D. (2008). Power, distress, and compassion: Turning a blind eye to the suffering of others. Psychological Science, 19, 1315–1322. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02241.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Waltzman, N. R., & Smith, K. R. (1998). Separate but lethal: The effects of economic segregation on mortality in metropolitan America. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 76, 341–373.Google Scholar
  52. Watson, T. (2009). Inequality and the measurement of residential segregation by income in American neighborhoods. NBER Working Paper 14908. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved May 8, 2013 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14908
  53. Wilkinson, R. (2005). The impact of inequality: How to make sick societies healthier. NY, NY: The New Press.Google Scholar
  54. Wronka, J. (2008). Human rights and social justice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Wuthnow, R. (1991). Acts of compassion: Caring for others and helping ourselves. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MinnesotaWayzataUSA

Personalised recommendations