Advertisement

Preparing Science Teachers for Diversity: Integrating the Contributions of Scientists from Underrepresented Groups in the Middle School Science Curriculum

  • Rose M. Pringle
  • Cheryl A. McLaughlin
Chapter

Abstract

Preservice teachers often create profiles of scientists based on stereotypes that have become embedded in their consciousness. Given the inextricable link between teachers’ belief and instructional practices, as science teacher educators, we believed it was important to tease out the stereotypes that preservice teachers have about scientists. In this chapter, we describe our efforts to provide pedagogical opportunities for preservice teachers to broaden their concept of multicultural science education and ways to engage the personal and cultural identities of their learners into their science lessons. Some of these strategies specifically involve the infusion of the contributions to science made by scientists from underrepresented groups in the sciences. Activities conducted in our science education course reveal that the image of the White male overwhelmingly persists as the classical representation of a scientist. Some of our preservice teachers argued that ethnic groups do not readily come to mind when they think about scientists. Scholars and researchers involved with the development of curriculum that embraces multicultural education cannot assume that the perceptions of scientists have transcended the White male stereotype. We contend that preservice teachers should be given opportunities to develop images of scientists beyond the monoculture of White male dominance in order to effectively implement science curriculum that acknowledges the contributions made to science by scientists from underrepresented groups. This however is a first step, as science teacher educators must enact practices that shift preservice teachers toward transformative practices and a recognition of their roles as effective agents for social change.

Keywords

Preservice Teacher Science Teacher Teacher Education Program Science Curriculum Teacher Candidate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aikenhead, G. S., & Jegede, O. J. (1999). Cross cultural science education: A cognitive explanation of cultural phenomena. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(3), 269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1989). Science for all Americans. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Atwater, M. (1993). Multicultural science education: Assumptions and alternative views. In Science for all cultures: A collection of articles from NSTA’s journals (pp. 1–5). Arlington, VA: NSTA.Google Scholar
  5. Atwater, M. (2010). Multicultural science education and curriculum materials. Science Activities, 47, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atwater, M. (2011). Significant science education research on multicultural science education, equity, and social justice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atwater, M., & Suriel, R. L. (2010). Science curricular materials through the lens of social justice: Research findings. In T. Chapman & N. Hobbel (Eds.), Social justice pedagogy across the curriculum: The practice of freedom (pp. 273–282). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy: Foundation of agency. In W. Perrig & A. Gorb (Eds.), Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness (pp. 17–33). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Banks, J. A. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. Review of Research in Education, 19, 3–49.Google Scholar
  10. Banks, J. A. (2009). Multicultural education: Dimensions and paradigms. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Routledge international companion to multicultural education (pp. 9–32). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Banks, C. A., & Banks, J. A. (1995). Equity pedagogy: An essential component of multicultural education. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 152–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Banks, J., Cochran-Smith, M., Moll, L., Richert, A., Zeichner, K., LePage, P., et al. (2005). Teaching diverse learners. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 232–274). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Banks, J. A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W. D., Irvine, J. J., Neito, S., et al. (2001). Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196–203.Google Scholar
  14. Bryan, L. A., & Atwater, M. M. (2002). Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacher preparation programs. Science Teacher Education, 86(6), 821–839.Google Scholar
  15. Calabrese Barton, A., & Tan, E. (2009). Funds of knowledge and discourses and hybrid spaces. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(1), 50–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calabrese Barton, A., Tan, E., & Rivet, A. (2008). Creating hybrid spaces for engaging school science among urban middle school girls. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 68–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cochran-Smith, M. (2004). Walking the road; Race, diversity, and social justice in teacher education. New York: Teacher’s College Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (1999). Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in communities. Review of Research in Education, 24, 249–305.Google Scholar
  19. Darling-Hammond, L. (2002). Learning to teach for social justice. In L. Darling-Hammond, J. French, & S. P. Garcia-Lopes (Eds.), Learning to teach for social justice. New York: Teacher’s College Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, B. M. (2006). How to teach students who don’t look like you: Culturally relevant teaching strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  21. Emdin, C. (2011). Dimensions of communication in urban science education: Interactions and transactions. Science Education, 95, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Henke, R. R., Peter, K., Li, X., & Geis, S. (2005). Elementary/secondary school teaching among recent college graduates: 1994 and 2001 (NCES 2005–161) U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, C., Corbett, C., & St Rose, A. (2010). Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.Google Scholar
  24. Hogan, K., & Corey, C. (2001). Viewing classrooms as cultural contexts for fostering scientific literacy. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 32(4), 214–243.Google Scholar
  25. Howard, T. C. (2003). Culturally relevant pedagogy: Ingredients for critical teacher reflection. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ladson-Billings, G. J. (1992). Culturally relevant teaching: The key to making multicultural education work. In C. A. Grant (Ed.), Research in multicultural education: From the margins to the mainstream. Bristol, PA: Falmers Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ladson-Billings, G. (1997). It doesn’t add up: African American students’ mathematics achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28, 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ladson-Billings, G. J. (1999). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race perspective. In I.-N. Asghar & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of research in education (Vol. 24, pp. 211–247). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, O., & Fradd, S. H. (1998). Science for all, including students from non-English language backgrounds. Educational Researcher, 27, 12–21.Google Scholar
  30. Little, J. W. (2003). Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice. Teachers College Records, 105(6), 913–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luft, J. A., Bragg, J., & Peters, C. (1999). Learning to teach in a diverse setting: A case study of a multicultural science education enthusiast. Science Education, 83(1), 100–118.Google Scholar
  32. Melear, C. (1995). Multiculturalism in science education. The American Biology Teachers, 57(1), 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Michaels, S., Shouse, A. W., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2008). Ready, set, science: Putting research to work in K-8 science classrooms. Washington, DC: National Academy.Google Scholar
  34. Monhardt, R. M. (2000). Fair play in science education: Equal opportunities for minority students. The Clearing House, 74(1), 18–22.Google Scholar
  35. Moore, F. (2006). Multicultural preservice teachers’ views of diversity and science teaching. Research and Practice in Social Sciences, 1(2), 98–131.Google Scholar
  36. Murrell, P. C. (2002). African-centered pedagogy: developing schools of achievement for African American children. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  37. National Research Council [NRC]. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  38. National Research Council [NRC]. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ogunleye, A. O. (2009). Defining science from multicultural and universal perspectives: A review of research and its implications for science education in Africa. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 6(5), 57–71.Google Scholar
  40. Parsons, E. C. (1997). Black high school females’ images of scientist: Expression of culture. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(7), 745–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodriguez, A. (2001). From gap gazing to promising cases: Moving toward equity in urban education reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(9), 1115–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Song, K., & Christiansen, F. (2001). Achievement gap in preservice teachers in urban settings. East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED456187)Google Scholar
  43. Tate, W. F. (1995). Returning to the root: A culturally relevant approach to mathematics pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 20–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weinstein, C. S., Tomlinson-Clarke, S., & Curran, M. (2004). Toward a conception of culturally responsive classroom management. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yerrick, R., Schiller, J., & Reisfeld, J. (2011). “Who are you callin’ expert?”: Using student narratives to redefine expertise and advocacy lower track science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1(48), 13–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Education, School of Teaching and LearningUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations