A Mathematical Model of the Knee Joint for Estimation of Forces and Torques During Standing-up
In this paper, the coordinate systems of segments of human were built up to describe the standing-up motion. Based on the coordinates, a mathematical model of knee joint was developed to estimate the forces and torques and contact forces between tibia and femur, muscle forces produced by five significant muscle groups and ligament forces involved into four ligaments of human lower extremity were taking into account. The results showed that the model is efficient to estimate the knee joint force and torques.
KeywordsKnee joint modeling Standing-up motion Joint force
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