Advertisement

Decision Making in the Mathematics Curricula among the Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Mathematics Education book series (AME)

Abstract

As in many other places, the mathematics curricula in the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan underwent reform at the turn of the millennium, addressing the various political, social, and educational needs of these regions. These reforms were not smooth and resulted in many heated debates and, recently, attempts have made to adjust the mathematics curricula in response to these debates. The initiation of change, strong reactions, and adjustments by the policy makers can be better understood by looking into the decision-making system and process of curriculum development in these three educational systems. In this chapter, we shall look at decision making in the mathematics curriculum among the three educational systems from three different perspectives: how curriculum decisions are made in these regions; what issues they aim to tackle; and why the implementation of curriculum changes has been problematic.

The historical development of the mathematics curricula in these three regions will first be portrayed. Building on this background, the general curriculum decision-making mechanism in these three regions will be delineated and implementation problems discussed. At the end of the chapter, the authors will attempt to draw lessons one can learn from these historical accounts.

Keywords

Mathematics curriculum Curriculum reform Curriculum decision making Curriculum implementation Education in Chinese regions 

References

  1. Association for Curriculum and Instruction of Taiwan (2000). Basic rationale and implementation strategies for school-based curriculum development: Doubt in elementary school mathematics education [in Chinese]. Taipei: Ministry of Education. Google Scholar
  2. Cai, J., & Wong, N. Y. (2012). Effective mathematics teaching: Conceptualisation, research and reflections. In W. Blum, R. B. Ferri, & K. Maaß(Eds.), Mathematikunterricht im Kontext von Realität, Kultur und Lehrerprofessionalität (pp. 294–303). Wiesbaden: Springer Spektrum. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chung, J. (2005). On the change of the school mathematics curricula in the recent decade [in Chinese]. Journal of Educational Research, 133, 124–134. Google Scholar
  4. Curriculum Development Council, Hong Kong (2002). Basic education curriculum guide: Building on strengths (primary 1–secondary 3). Hong Kong: Education Department. Google Scholar
  5. Curriculum Development Institute (2009). The CDC structure. Retrieved Jan 15 2013 form http://cd1.edb.hkedcity.net/cd/cdc/download/others/CDC%20Structure_en_090115.pdf.
  6. Delors, J., Mufti, A., Amagi, I., Carneiro, R., Chung, F., Geremek, B., Gorham, W., Kornhauser, A., Manley, M., Quero, M. P., Savané, M., Singh, K., Stavenhagen, R., Suhr, M. W., & Zhou, N. (1996). Learning: the treasure within. Paris: UNESCO. Google Scholar
  7. Eisner, E. W. (2002). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall. Google Scholar
  8. Fok, P. K. (2005). Curriculum advisory bodies in Hong Kong: Structure, characteristics and critique [in Chinese]. Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 265–287. Google Scholar
  9. Fung, C. I., & Wong, N. Y. (1997). Unofficial mathematics curriculum for Hong Kong: P.1 to S.5. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Mathematics Education. Google Scholar
  10. Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3–4), 381–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. He, X. (2006). Reactions to Boju Jaing’s ‘What does mathematics lesson lose under the new curriculum standard’ [in Chinese]. Guangdong Education, 6, 55–57. Google Scholar
  12. Huang, R., & Li, Y. (2009). Pursuing excellence in mathematics classroom instruction through exemplary lesson development in China: A case study. ZDM—The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 41, 279–296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang, B. (2005, March 16). What does mathematics lesson lose under the new curriculum standard [in Chinese]. Guangming Daily. http://www.gmw.cn/content/2005-03/16/content_197119.htm. Accessed 15 January 2013.
  14. Lam, C. C., & Chan, K. S. J. (2011). How schools cope with a new integrated subject for senior secondary students: An example from Hong Kong. Curriculum Perspectives, 31(3), 23–32. Google Scholar
  15. Lam, C. C., & Yeung, S. S. Y. (2010). School-based curriculum development in Hong Kong: An arduous journey. In E. H. F. Law & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Schools as curriculum agencies: Asian and European perspectives on school-based curriculum development (pp. 61–82). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Google Scholar
  16. Lam, C. C., Wong, N. Y., Ding, R., Li, S. P. T., & Ma, Y. (2012). Basic education mathematics curriculum reform in the greater Chinese region—trends and lessons learned. In B. Sriraman, J. Cai, K. Lee, L. Fan, Y. Shimuzu, L. C. Sam, & K. Subramanium (Eds.), The first sourcebook on Asian research in mathematics education: China, Korea, Singapore, Japan, Malaysia, & India. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing. Google Scholar
  17. Lin, P. H. (2004). The study of the context of school-based curriculum development [in Chinese]. Journal of National Taipei Teachers College, 17(2), 35–56. Google Scholar
  18. Lin, Z. Z., & Zhang, S. (2006). An analysis of the curriculum reform implementation strategies in Hong Kong [in Chinese]. Exploring Education Development, 12A, 8–13. Google Scholar
  19. Ma, L. (1992). Some clarifications on ‘nine-year compulsory education full-time primary and middle school curriculum planning (try out)’ [in Chinese]. In Basic Education Department, MOE (Ed.), Guidelines for nine-year compulsory education curriculum planning. Beijing: People’s Education Press. Google Scholar
  20. Ma, Y. (1998). Retrospect and outlook on the development of mathematics curriculum in the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan [in Chinese]. Education Journal, 26(1), 131–148. Google Scholar
  21. Ma, Y. (2008). The strategies and characteristics of curriculum implementation in the Chinese mainland. In P. K. Fok, Z. Y. Yu, H. X. Xu, K. W. Chu, K. L. Hui, F. Chiang, T. S. Lee, C. C. Tsui, Y. P. Ho, H. S. Hon, J. J. Wang, M. R. Zhao, & Y. G. Lin (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction: The journey of research and practice (pp. 164–172). Chongqing: Chongqing University Press. Google Scholar
  22. Ma, Y., Lam, C. C., & Wong, N. Y. (2006). Chinese primary school mathematics teachers working in a centralized curriculum system: A case study of two primary schools in North-East China. Compare, 36(2), 197–212. Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Education, China (2001). Full time free education mathematics curriculum standard (Trial edition) [in Chinese]. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press. Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Education, Taiwan (1993). Elementary school curriculum standards [in Chinese]. Taipei: Author. Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Education, Taiwan (2003). Enjoyment of learning mathematics: K-9 mathematics instruction brochure [in Chinese]. Taipei: Author. Google Scholar
  26. Morris, P. (1996). The Hong Kong school curriculum. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Google Scholar
  27. Morris, P., & Adamson, B. (2010). Curriculum, schooling and society in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. National Institute for Compilation and Translation, Taiwan (2002a). Elementary school mathematics: Book 4 [in Chinese]. Taipei: Author. Google Scholar
  29. National Institute for Compilation and Translation, Taiwan (2002b). Elementary school mathematics teaching guide: Book 4 [in Chinese]. Taipei: Author. Google Scholar
  30. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ belief and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pan, H. L. (Ed.) (2007). Empowering teachers [in Chinese]. Taipei: Psychology Publishing. Google Scholar
  32. Schiro, M. S. (2008). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Google Scholar
  33. Shi, N., & Liu, H. (2007). Quality-oriented education: Fundamental objective and implementation approach [in Chinese]. Educational Research, 8, 10–14. Google Scholar
  34. Shi, N., & Ma, Y. (2009). Mathematics curriculum for basic education: The design, implementation and outlook of the reform [in Chinese]. Nanning: Guangxi Education Publishing House. Google Scholar
  35. Stigler, J., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: Free Press. Google Scholar
  36. Tam, H. P. (2010). A brief introduction of the mathematics curricula of Taiwan. In F. K. S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia (pp. 109–128). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Google Scholar
  37. Tang, K. C., Wong, N. Y., Fok, P. K., Ngan, M. Y., & Wong, K. L. (2007). Hong Kong primary mathematics curriculum development in the past five decades and its implications for future mathematics curriculum development [in Chinese]. Journal of Basic Education, 16(1), 115–131. Google Scholar
  38. Watkins, D. A. (2008). Learning-centered teaching: An Asian perspective. Keynote address at the 2nd International Conference on Learner-centered Education, Manila, the Philippines, February. Google Scholar
  39. Wong, N. Y. (2004). The CHC learner’s phenomenon: Its implications on mathematics education. In L. Fan, N. Y. Wong, J. Cai, & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics: Perspectives from insiders (pp. 503–534). Singapore: World Scientific. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wong, N. Y. (2010). The Hong Kong mathematics curriculum: 1997 × MATH × ED = Period of Change. In F. K. S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia (pp. 33–57). Rotterdam: Sense Publications. Google Scholar
  41. Wong, N. Y., & Tang, K. C. (2012). Mathematics education in Hong Kong under colonial rule. BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics, 27, 1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wong, N. Y., & Wong, K. L. (2001). The process of the modern mathematics reform and the lessons we learn on contemporary mathematics education [in Chinese]. In N. Y. Wong (Ed.), The long path of mathematics education in Hong Kong: Modern mathematics as the opening chapter (pp. 9–111). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Mathematics Education. Google Scholar
  43. Wong, N. Y., Han, J., & Lee, P. Y. (2004). The mathematics curriculum: Toward globalization or westernization? In L. Fan, N. Y. Wong, J. Cai, & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics: perspectives from insiders (pp. 27–70). Singapore: World Scientific. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu, C. S. (2003). Knowledge economics and educational development [in Chinese]. Taipei: Shita Books. Google Scholar
  45. Wu, R. X., & Lin, W. S. (1997). Conceiving constructivistic pedagogy in primary mathematics classroom [in Chinese]. Journal of Educational Resources and Research, 18, 44–50. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Science EducationNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Curriculum and InstructionThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of EducationNortheast Normal University of ChinaChangchungChina

Personalised recommendations