Skip to main content

Parenting in the Philippines

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Parenting Across Cultures

Part of the book series: Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science ((SACH,volume 7))

Abstract

The chapter provides a general view of parenting in the Philippines, in terms of attitudes and behaviors towards children, the nature of parent-child interactions, and the differentiated roles of mothers and fathers, and sons and daughters. The pertinent themes that characterize Filipino parenting include parental authority and control, and the expectation of obedience on the part of children; family cohesion and interdependence; and the value of meeting familial obligations. The roles of mothers and fathers are demarcated along traditional gender lines; however, mothers’ work, particularly in the current context of increasing overseas employment, has posed challenges to the customary family dynamics. The discussion of Filipino parenting is embedded in the nation’s traditional cultural values of kapwa, hiya, and utang na loob, and contextualized in the current milieu that portends culture and family change.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aguilar, F. V. (2009). Maalwang buhay: Family, overseas migration, and cultures of relatedness in Barangay Paraiso. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguiling-Dalisay, G., Mendoza, R., Mirafelix, J., Yacat, J., Sto. Domingo, E., & Bambico, R. (2000). Pagkalalake [Masculinity]: Men in control? Filipino male views on love, sex & women. Quezon City: Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino [National Association for Filipino Psychology].

    Google Scholar 

  • Alampay, L. P., & Jocson, M. R. (2011). Attributions and attitudes of mothers and fathers in the Philippines. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11(2–3), 163–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alampay, L. P., Dela Cruz, A., Fernandez, K., Liwag, M. E., & Melgar, I. (2005). Boys don’t cry, or do they? An exploratory study of stress and coping of Filipino boys. Paper presented at the 42nd annual conference of the psychological association of the Philippines, Metro Manila.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bornstein, M., & Cheah, C. (2006). The place of “culture and parenting” in the ecological contextual perspective on developmental science. In K. Rubin & O. B. Chung (Eds.), Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 3–33). New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bornstein, M., Putnick, D., & Lansford, J. (2011). Parenting attitudes and attributions in cross-cultural perspective. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11(2–3), 214–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bulatao, R. (1975). The value of children: Philippines. Honolulu: East–west Population Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bulatao, J. C. (1992/1998). Phenomena and their interpretation: Landmark essays 1957–1989. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carunungan-Robles, A. (1986). Perceptions of parental nurturance, punitiveness, and power by selected Filipino primary school children. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 19, 18–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chao, R., & Tseng, V. (2002). Parenting of Asians. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 4). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, M., & Bornstein, M. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218–232.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Commission on Filipinos Overseas. (2010). Stock estimate of overseas Filipinos. Retrieved, from http://www.cfo.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1340%3Astock-estimate-of overseas filipinos&catid = 134 &Itemid = 814

  • Cooper, C., Baker, H., Polichar, D., & Welsh, M. (1993). Values and communication of Chinese, Filipino, Mexican, and Vietnamese American adolescents with their families and friends. In S. Shulman & W. A. Collins (Eds.), Father-adolescent relationships (New directions for child development, no.62, pp. 73–89). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darling, N., Cumsille, P., & Peña-Alampay, L. (2005). Rules, legitimacy of parental authority, and obligation to obey in Chile, the Philippines, and the United States. In J. Smetana (Ed.), Changing boundaries of parental authority during adolescence (pp. 47–60). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • De La Cruz, A. (1986). The impact of maternal employment on family members’ perceptions and attitudes towards the maternal role. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 19, 29–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dela Cruz, M. T., Protacio, E., Balanon, F., Yacat, J., & Francisco, C. (2001). Trust and power: Child abuse in the eyes of the child and the parent. Manila: Save the Children UK and the United Nations Children’s Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durbrow, E., Peña, L., Masten, A., Sesma, A., & Williamson, I. (2001). Mothers’ conceptions of child competence in contexts of poverty: The Philippines, St. Vincent, and the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(5), 438–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enrile, A., & Agbayani, P. (2007). Differences in attitudes towards women among three groups of Filipinos: Filipinos in the Philippines, Filipino American immigrants, and U.S.-born Filipino Americans. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 16(1–2), 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enriquez, V. (1994). From colonial to liberation psychology. Manila: De La Salle University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Espina, E. (1996). Mother-child relationships in the Philippines. Philippine Studies, 44(2), 153–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esteban, E. (2006). Parental verbal abuse: Culture-specific coping behavior of college students in the Philippines. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 36(3), 243–259.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Family code of the Republic of the Philippines, Executive Order No. 209. (1987). Retrieved, from http://www.chanrobles.com/executiveorderno209.htm#.UI-814VTHM8

  • Fuligni, A. (1998). Authority, autonomy, and parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion: A study of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 34, 782–792.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fuligni, A., & Pederson, S. (2002). Family obligation and the transition to young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 856–868.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fuligni, A., Tseng, V., & Lam, M. (1999). Attitudes toward family obligations among American adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1030–1044.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garo-Santiago, M., Mansukhani, R., & Resureccion, R. (2009). Adolescent identity in the context of the Filipino family. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 42(2), 175–193.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guthrie, G., & Jacobs, P. J. (1966). Child rearing and personality development in the Philippines. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harkness, S., & Super, C. (2006). Themes and variations: Parental ethnotheories in western cultures. In K. Rubin & O. B. Chung (Eds.), Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 61–79). New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hechanova, M. R., Franco, E., & Alampay, L. P. (2008). Managing our young Filipino workers. In M. R. Hechanova & E. Franco (Eds.), Leading Philippine organizations in a changing world: Research and best practices. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 1–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ho, D. (1993). Relational orientation in Asian social psychology. In U. Kim & J. Berry (Eds.), Indigenous psychologies: Research and experience in cultural context (pp. 240–259). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, L. (1988). Cross-cultural differences in childrearing goals. In R. Levine, P. Miller, & M. West (Eds.), Parental behavior in diverse societies (pp. 99–122). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jocano, F. L. (1970). Maternal and child care among the Tagalogs in Bay, Laguna, Philippines. Asian Studies, 8(3), 277–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jocano, F. L. (1998). Filipino social organization: Traditional kinship and family organization. Quezon City: Punlad Research House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jocson, M. R., Alampay, L. P., & Lansford, J. (2012). Predicting Filipino mothers’ and fathers’ reported use of corporal punishment from education, authoritarian attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(2), 137–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kagitcibasi, C. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamug, C. (1989). Adolescent perception of parental influence. Philippine Sociological Review, 37(1–2), 46–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Oburu, P., Palmérus, K., et al. (2005). Cultural normativeness as a moderator of the link between physical discipline and children’s adjustment: A comparison of China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Child Development, 76, 1234–1246.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lansford, J. E., Alampay, L. P., Al-Hassan, S., Baccini, D., Bombi, A. S., Bornstein, M. H., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Di Giunta, L., Dodge, K. A., Oburu, P., Pastorelli, C., Runyan, D. K., Skinner, A. T., Sorbring, E., Tapanya, S., Tirado, L. M. U., & Zelli, A. (2010). Corporal punishment of children in nine countries as a function of child gender and parent gender. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2010, 1–12. doi:10.1155/2010/672780.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Licuanan, P. (1979). Aspects of child rearing in an urban low-income community. Philippine Studies, 27, 453–468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liwag, M. E., De la Cruz, A., & Macapagal, M. (1998). How we raise our daughters and sons: Child-rearing and gender socialization in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 31, 1–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, F. (1973). Social acceptance reconsidered. Manila: Institute of Philippine Culture.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCann-Erickson Philippines. (2006). 2006 McCann inter-generation study: Youth study highlights. Manila: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Medina, B. (2001). The Filipino family (2nd ed.). Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Statistics Office. (2010). Census of population and housing. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://www.census.gov.ph/content/household-population-philippines-reaches-921-million

  • National Statistics Office. (2012). Preliminary results of the 2011 survey on children. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://www.census.gov.ph/content/number-working-children-5-17-years-old-estimated-55-million-preliminary-results-2011-survey

  • Ney, P. (2007, August 13). Inequality growing in Asia; ‘fairly stable’ in the Philippines. The Daily PCIJ. Retrieved June 3, 2010, from http://www.pcij.org/blog/?p=1899

  • NFO-Trends. (2001). Youth study 2001. Manila: Society of Jesus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nydegger, W., & Nydegger, C. (1966). Tarong: An Ilocos barrio in the Philippines. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega, R., & Hechanova, R. (2010). Work-family conflict, stress, and satisfaction among dual-earning couples. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 43(1), 27–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parreñas, R. (2006). Children of global migration. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pesigan, I. (2012). Identity processes in Filipino emerging adults: Parental influences and mental health outcomes. Masters thesis, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, J. T. (1993). Generalized family exchange: A case from the Philippines. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55(3), 570–584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Philippine Institute for Development Studies. (2008). OFW children: Wanting for more attention. Development Research News, 26(2), 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philippine Journal of Child-Youth Development. (1976). Child-rearing practices during the fourth year of life. 6(1), 34–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pingol, A. (2001). Remaking masculinities: Identity, power, and gender dynamics in families with migrant wives and househusbands. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Center for Women’s Studies and Ford Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Porio, E., Lynch, F., & Hollsteiner, M. (1981). The Filipino family, community, and nation (IPC Papers No. 12). Quezon City: Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quiñones, A. (2009). Identity explorations during the transition to adulthood: An exploratory study. Masters thesis, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramiro, L., Madrid, B., Lozada, D., & Perez, E. (2005). Understanding child discipline and child abuse in the Filipino context: Comparing perspectives of parents, children, professionals, and community leaders. Retrieved, from http://www.childrensociety.org.sg/downloadpapers/papersfiles/Ramiro,%20Laurie.pdf

  • Raymundo, C. M., & Cruz, G. T. (2004). Youth sex and risk behaviors in the Philippines. Quezon City: Demographic Research and Development Foundation, Inc./University of the Philippines Population Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosaldo, M. (1980). Knowledge and passion: Ilongot notions of self and social life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanapo, M., & Nakamura, Y. (2011). Gender and physical punishment: The Filipino children’s experience. Child Abuse Review, 20, 39–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer, E. S., & Edgerton, M. (1985). Parent and child correlates of parental modernity. In I. E. Sigel (Ed.), Parental belief systems: Psychological consequences for children (pp. 287–318). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Senate Economic Planning Office. (2012). Overseas Filipino workers. Retrieved, from http://www.senate.gov.ph/publications.asp

  • Super, C., & Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface between child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9(4), 545–556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tan, A. (1989). Four meanings of fatherhood. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 22, 51–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tan, M. L., Ujano-Batangan, M. T., & Española, H. (2001). Love and desire: Young Filipinos and sexual risks. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Center for Women’s Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Children’s Fund. (2012). The state of the world’s children 2012: Children in an urban world. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ventura, E. R. (1981). An overview of child psychology in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 14, 3–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, D. (1997). Family secrets: Transnational struggles among children of Filipino immigrants. Sociological Perspectives, 40(3), 457–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Liane Peña Alampay .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Alampay, L.P. (2014). Parenting in the Philippines. In: Selin, H. (eds) Parenting Across Cultures. Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science, vol 7. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7503-9_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7503-9_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-007-7502-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-007-7503-9

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics