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Distribution

  • Alberto A. Guglielmone
  • Richard G. Robbins
  • Dmitry A. Apanaskevich
  • Trevor N. Petney
  • Agustín Estrada-Peña
  • Ivan G. Horak
Chapter

Abstract

Hard ticks are found in all six zoogeographic regions, but the distribution of the species in different genera is not uniform. The genus Ixodes has the widest distribution, occurring across the six zoogeographic regions; 32 species (13 %) occur in more than one zoogeographic region. Seven species of Ixodes have a broad distribution because they are established in three or more zoogeographic regions or, in the case of I. kerguelenensis, in the Australasian Region and on islands in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, while I. uriae has a circumpolar distribution, including adjacent islands and continental lands. Members of this genus are remarkable for parasitizing Aves on remote islands and around the poles. The Afrotropical Region contains the greatest number of Ixodes (63 species or 26 % of the total for the genus), followed by the Palearctic Region with 44 (18 %) found exclusively there. A total of 138 species (57 %) are currently known only from lands that constituted the ancient continent of Gondwana; this percentage increases to 69 % for the 169 species established exclusively and non-exclusively in these lands. On the other hand, 74 species (30 %) are exclusively found in lands derived from the ancient continent of Laurasia.

Keywords

Extant Genus Neotropical Region Hard Tick Remote Island Adjacent Island 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto A. Guglielmone
    • 1
  • Richard G. Robbins
    • 2
  • Dmitry A. Apanaskevich
    • 3
  • Trevor N. Petney
    • 4
  • Agustín Estrada-Peña
    • 5
  • Ivan G. Horak
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Animal ProductionInstituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria Estación Experimental Agropecuaria RafaelaRafaelaArgentina
  2. 2.Armed Forces Pest Management BoardOffice of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and EnvironmentWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.James H. Oliver Jr. Institute of Arthropodology and Parasitology U.S. National Tick CollectionGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA
  4. 4.Department of Ecology and ParasitologyInstitute of Zoology Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  5. 5.Department of Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of PretoriaOnderstepoortSouth Africa

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