Importance of the Diversity within the Halophytes to Agriculture and Land Management in Arid and Semiarid Countries

  • Hans-Werner Koyro
  • Helmut Lieth
  • Bilquees Gul
  • Raziuddin Ansari
  • Bernhard Huchzermeyer
  • Zainul Abideen
  • Tabassum Hussain
  • M. Ajmal Khan
Part of the Tasks for Vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 47)


Freshwater resources will become limited in near future and it is necessary to develop sustainable biological production systems, which can tolerate hyper-osmotic and hyper-ionic salinity. Plants growing in saline conditions primarily have to cope with osmotic stress followed by specific ion effects, their toxicities, ion disequilibrium and related ramifications such as oxidative burst. This is an exclusion criterion for the majority of our common crops. In order to survive under such conditions, suitable adjustments are necessary. Beside the control of the entrance on root level, the ability to secrete ions (excreter) or to dilute ions (succulents) helps to preserve a vital ion balance inside the tissues.

Sadly, traditional approaches of breeding crop plants with improved abiotic stress resistance have met limited success so far. Failures were due to two problem areas, lack of easy to detect traits and too many genes that had to be transferred at a time. These arguments underline the advantage of utilizing suited halophytes as crops on saline lands and to improve their individual crop potential. Because of their diversity, halophytes have been regarded as a rich source of potential germplasm. A variety of halophytic plant species already has been utilized as nonconventional cash-crops. Lieth H, Mochtchenko M (Cash crop halophytes: recent studies. Tasks for vegetation science, vol 38. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) described the utilization of halophytic species for the improvement of sustainable agriculture as well as sources of income.

However, knowing that saline irrigation always comprises the risk of increasing salinity up to levels where no plants (even no halophytes) can exist anymore, it is important to achieve sustainable conditions. Therefore it is essential to study the interaction among soil salinity, individual species (to study heterogeneity within the halophytes and plant diversity), biotic interactions, and atmosphere at distinct conditions before application.

The heterogeneity within halophytes (biotic factor) is often ignored but biotic interactions can be in this context an ideal accessory to stabilize sustainable populations on saline lands. The aspect, that dicotyledonous halophytes, when grown in saline soils, generally accumulate more NaCl in shoot tissues than monocotyledonous halophytes (especially grasses) has several consequences on their suitability as crops and their culture conditions (procedure to apply salinity). The implementation of an intercropping system (halophyte culture) is such a way to use saline land and brackish water for producing an economically viable and environmentally sound agriculture. It was estimated that 15 % of undeveloped land in the world’s coastal and inland salt deserts could be suitable for growing crops using saltwater agriculture. This amounts to 130 million hectares of new cropland that could be brought into human or animal food production chain - without cutting down forests or consuming more scarce freshwater for irrigation.


Salt Stress Salt Marsh Salt Resistance Turf Grass Saline Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Fitz D, Reiner H, Rode BM (2007) Chemical evolution toward the origin of life. Pure Appl Chem 79:2101–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Becker B, Marin B (2009) Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes. Ann Bot 103:999–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hall DO (1989) Carbon flows in the biosphere: present and future. J Geol Soc 146:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Channing A, Edwards D (2009) Yellowstone hot spring environments and the palaeo-ecophysiology of Rhynie chert plants: towards a synthesis. Plant Ecol Divers 2:111–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roohi A, Bostan N, Nabgha-e-Amen MM, Safdar W (2011) A critical review on halophytes: salt tolerant plants. J Med Plant Res 5:7108–7118Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:945–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marschner H (ed) (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Aufl, London; Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lieth H, Hamdy A (eds) (1999) Halophyte uses in different climates I: ecological and ecophysiological studies: proceedings of the 3rd seminar of the EU Concerted Action Group IC 18CT 96–0055, Florence, Italy, 20 July, 1998, vol 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geissler N, Hussin S, Koyro HW (2009) Interactive effects of NaCl salinity, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and chemical composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Aster tripolium L. Environ Exp Bot 65:220–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koyro HW, Khan MA, Lieth H (2011) Halophytic crops: a resource for the future to reduce the water crisis? Emir J Food Agric 23:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1986) Oxygen free radicals and iron in relation to biology and medicine: some problems and concepts. Arch Biochem Biophys 246:501–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davies DD (1987) The biochemistry of plants. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fridovich I (1986) Superoxide dismutases. Adv Enzymol 58:62–97Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wise RR, Naylor AW (1987) The peroxidative destruction of lipids during chilling injury to photosynthesis and ultrastructure. Plant Physiol 83:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Imlay J, Linn S (1988) DNA damage and oxygen radical toxicity. Science 240:1302–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson MP, Pérez-Bueno ML, Zia A, Horton P, Ruban AV (2009) The zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE components of nonphotochemical quenching involve common conformational changes within the photosystem II antenna in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 149:1061–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Müller P, Li XP, Niyogi KK (2001) Non-photochemical quenching. A response to excess light energy. Plant Physiol 125:1558–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ohad I (1984) Membrane protein damage and repair: removal and replacement of inactivated 32-kilodalton polypeptides in chloroplast membranes. J Cell Biol 99:481–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li XP, Bjorkman O, Shih C, Grossman AR, Rosenquist M, Jansson S, Niyogi KK (2000) A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting. Nature 403:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li XP, Gilmore AM, Caffarri S, Bassi R, Golan T, Kramer D, Niyogi KK (2004) Regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting involves intrathylakoid lumen pH sensing by the PsbS protein. J Biol Chem 279:22866–22874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Havaux M, Dall´Osto L, Bassi R (2007) Zeaxanthin has enhanced antioxidant capacity with respect to all other Xanthophylls in Arabidopsis leaves and functions independent of binding to PSII antennae. Plant Physiol 145:1506–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spychalla JP, Desborough SL (1990) Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and alpha-tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. Plant Physiol 94:214–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Verma S, Mishra SN (2005) Putrescine alleviation of growth in salt stressed Brassica juncea by inducing antioxidative defense system. J Plant Physiol 162:669–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Benavides MP, Marconi PL, Gallego SM, Comba ME, Tomaro ML (2000) Relationship between antioxidant defence systems and salt tolerance in Solanum tuberosum. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:273–278Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee DH, Kim YS, Lee CB (2001) The inductive responses of the antioxidant enzymes by salt stress in the rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Plant Physiol 158:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mittova V, Tal M, Volokita M, Guy M (2002) Salt stress induces up-regulation of an efficient chloroplast antioxidant system in the salt-tolerant wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii but not in the cultivated species. Physiol Plant 115:393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mittova V, Tal M, Volokita M, Guy M (2003) Up-regulation of the leaf mitochondrial and peroxisomal antioxidative systems in response to salt-induced oxidative stress in the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. Plant Cell Environ 26:845–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen Z, Gallie DR (2006) Dehydroascorbate reductase affects leaf growth, development, and function. Plant Physiol 142:775–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Halliwell B (1982) Superoxide and superoxide-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals are important in oxygen toxicity. Trends Biochem Sci 7:270–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen G, Asada K (1989) Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their enzymatic and molecular properties. Plant Cell Physiol 30:987–998Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chang H, Siegel BZ, Siegel SM (1984) Salinity-induced changes in isoperoxidases in taro Colocasia esculenta. Phytochemistry 23:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular response to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yokoi S, Quintero FJ, Cubero B, Ruiz MT, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (2002) Differential expression and function of Arabidopsis thaliana NHX Na/H antiporters in the salt stress response. Plant J 30:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koyro HW (2006) Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and solute composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Plantago coronopus (L.). Environ Exp Bot 56:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Touchette BW, Smith GA, Rhodes KL, Poole M (2009) Tolerance and avoidance: two contrasting physiological responses to salt stress in mature marsh halophytes Juncus roemerianus Scheele and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 380:06–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Flowers TJ (2004) Improving crop salt tolerance. J Exp Bot 55:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Foolad MR (1997) Genetic basis of physiological traits related to salt tolerance in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Plant Breed 116:53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koyro HW, Stelzer R (1988) Ion concentrations in cytoplasm and vacuoles of rhizodermis cells from NaCl treated Sorghum, Spartina and Puccinellia plants. J Plant Physiol 133:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yao X, Horie T, Xue S, Leung HY, Katsuhara M, Brodsky DE et al (2010) Differential sodium and potassium transport selectivities of the rice OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT2;2 transporters in plant cells. Plant Physiol 152:341–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhu JK (2003) Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fuchs I, Stölzle S, Ivashikina N, Hedrich R (2005) Rice K+ uptake channel OsAKT1 is sensitive to salt stress. Planta 221:212–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Demidchik V, Davenport RJ, Tester M (2002) Nonselective cation channels in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:67–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shabala S (2003) Regulation of potassium transport in leaves: from molecular to tissue level. Ann Bot 92:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tester M, Davenport RJ (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tester M, Bacic A (2005) Abiotic stress tolerance in grasses. From model plants to crop plants. Plant Physiol 137:791–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yancey PH, Clarke ME, Hand SC, Bowlus RD, Somero GN (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217:1214–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen Z, Cuin TA, Zhou M, Twomey A, Naidu BP, Shabala AS (2007) Compatible solute accumulation and stress-mitigating effects in barley genotypes contrasting in their salt tolerance. J Exp Bot 58:4245–4255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Winicov I, Bastola DR (1997) Salt tolerance in crop plants: new approaches through tissue culture and gene regulation. Acta Physiol Plant 19:435–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Winicov I, Bastola DR (1999) Transgenic overexpression of the transcription factor Alfin1 enhances expression of the endogenous MsPRP2 gene in Alfalfa and improves salinity tolerance of the plants. Plant Physiol 120:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Horie T, Schroeder JI (2004) Sodium transporters in plants. Diverse genes and physiological functions. Plant Physiol 136:2457–2462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Munns R (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wu YY, Chen QJ, Chen M, Chen J, Wang XC (2005) Salt-tolerant transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene. Plant Sci 169:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Borsani O, Valpuesta V, Botella MA (2003) Developing salt tolerant plants in a new century: a molecular biology approach. Plant Cell Tiss Org 73:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Glenn EP, Brown JJ, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:227–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lokhande VH, Suprasanna P (2012) Prospects of halophytes in understanding and managing abiotic stress tolerance. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. Springer, New York, pp 29–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Flowers TJ, Galal HK, Bromham L (2010) Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. Funct Plant Biol 37:604–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Aronson JA (1989) HALOPH a data base of salt tolerant plants of the world, Office arid land studies. University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Menzel U, Lieth H (2003) Halophyte database vers. 2.0. Online verfügbar unter
  62. 62.
    Lieth H, Mochtchenko M (2003) Cash crop halophytes. Recent studies: 10 years after the Al Ain meeting. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht/BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Khan MA, Qaiser M (2006) Halophytes of Pakistan: characteristics, distribution and potentials economics usages. In: Khan MA, Kust GS, Barth H-J, Böer B (eds) Sabkha ecosystems, vol II. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 129–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lieth H, Mochtchenko M (eds) (2003) Cash crop halophytes: recent studies. Tasks for vegetation science, vol 38. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rabhi M, Ferchichi S, Jouini J, Hamrouni MH, Koyro HW, Ranieri A, Smaoui A (2010) Phytodesalination of a salt-affected soil with the halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. to arrange in advance the requirements for the successful growth of a glycophytic crop. Bioresour Technol 101:6822–6828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shahid SA (2002) Recent technological advances in characterization and reclamation of salt-affected soils in Arid zones. In: Nader Al-Awadhi M, Taha FK (eds) New technologies for soil reclamation and desert greenery. Amherst Scientific Publishers, Amherst, USA, pp 307–329Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wang CQ, Xu C, Wei JG, Wang HB, Wang SH (2008) Enhanced tonoplast H + -ATPase activity and superoxide dismutase activity in the halophyte Suaeda salsa containing high level of betacyanin. J Plant Growth Regul 27:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wang KS, Huang LC, Lee HS, Chen PY, Chang SH (2008) Phytoextraction of cadmium by Ipomoea aquatic (water spinach) in hydroponic solution: effects of cadmium speciation. Chemosphere 72:666–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang Y, Lai J, Sun S, Li Y, Liu Y, Liang L, Chen M, Xie Q (2008) Comparison analysis of transcripts from the halophyte Thellungiella halophila. J Integr Plant Biol 50:1327–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wu H-J, Zhang Z, Wang J-Y, Oh D-H, Dassanayake M, Liu B, Huang Q, Sun H-X, Xia R, Wu Y et al (2012) Insights into salt tolerance from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:12219–12224. Available at
  71. 71.
    Dubcovsky J (2004) Marker-assisted selection in public breeding programs: the wheat experience. Crop Sci 44:1895–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yan L, Loukoianov A, Tranquilli G, Helguera M, Fahima T, Dubcovsky J (2003) Positional cloning of wheat vernalization gene VRN1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6263–6268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Klagges S, Bhatti AS, Sarwar G, Hilpert A, Jeschke WD (1993) Ion distribution in relation to leafage in Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth (Kallar grass). New Phytol 125:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hassine AB, Ghanem ME, Bouzid S, Lutts S (2008) An inland and a coastal population of the Mediterranean xero-halophyte species Atriplex halimus L. differ in their ability to accumulate proline and glycinebetaine in response to salinity and water stress. J Exp Bot 59:1315–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Marcum KB, Murdoch CL (1992) Salt tolerance of the coastal salt marsh grass Sporobolus virginicus L. Kunth. New Phytol 120:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cooper A (1984) A comparative study of the tolerance of salt marsh plants to manganese. Plant Soil 81:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Naidoo G (1994) Growth, water and ion relationships in the coastal halophytes Triglochin bulbosa and T. striata. Environ Exp Bot 34:419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pessarakli M, Touchane H (2011) Biological technique in combating desertification processes using a true halophytic plant. Int J Water Resour Arid Environ 1:360–365 (ISSN: 2079-7079)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marcum KB, Pessarakli M, Kopec DM (2005) Relative salinity tolerance of 21 turf-type desert salt grasses compared to Bermuda grass. Hort Sci 40:827–829Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kjelgren R, Rupp L, Kilgren D (2000) Water conservation in urban landscapes. Hort Sci 35:1037–1040Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Marcum KB (2006) Use of saline and non-potable water in the turfgrass industry: constraints and developments. Agric Water Manag 80:132–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lee G, Carrow RN, Duncan RR (2005) Criteria for assessing salinity tolerance of the halophytic turfgrass seashore paspalum. Crop Sci 45:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gulzar S, Khan MA (2006) Comparative salt tolerance of perennial grasses. In: Khan MA, Weber DJ (eds) Tasks for vegetation science, vol 40, Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp 239–253Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    El Shaer HM (2010) Halophytes and salt-tolerant plants as potential forage for ruminants in the near east region. Small Rumin Res 91:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Glenn EP, Brown JJ, O’Leary JW (1998) Irrigating crops with seawater. As the world’s population grows and freshwater stores become more precious, researchers are looking to the sea for the water to irrigate selected crops. Sci Am 279:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Khan MA, Ansari R, Ali H, Gul B, Nielsen BL (2009) Panicum turgidum, a potentially sustainable cattle feed alternative to maize for saline areas. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:542–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Shannon MC, Grieve C (1999) Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Sci Hort 78:5–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Altieri MA, Rosset PM (1995) Agroecology and the conversion of large-scale conventional systems to sustainable management. Int J Environ Stud 50:165–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tardieu H, Bart S, Hoogeveen J, Faurès JM, Van de Nick G (2009) Increased biofuel production in the coming decade: to what extent will it affect global freshwater resources? Irrig Drain 58:S148–S160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Abideen Z, Ansari R, Gul B, Khan MA (2012) The place of halophytes in Pakistan’s biofuel industry. Biofuels 3:211–220. Online verfügbar unter, zuletzt geprüft am 09.01.2013
  91. 91.
    Abideen Z, Ansari R, Khan MA (2011) Halophytes: potential source of ligno-cellulosic biomass for ethanol production. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1818–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2007) World agriculture: towards 2030/2050 – Interim report. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bagwell CE, Lovell CR (2000) Persistence of selected Spartina alterniflora rhizoplane diazotrophs exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4625–4633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hessini K, Gandour M, Albouchi A, Soltani A, Koyro HW, Abdelly C (2008) Biomass production, photosynthesis and leaf water relations of Spartina alterniflora under moderate water stress. J Plant Res 121:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Koyro HW, Huchzermeyer B (2004) Ecophysiological needs of the potential biomass crop Spartina townsendii Grov. Trop Ecol 45:123–139Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Matamala R, Drake BG (1999) The influence of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plant-soil nitrogen interactions in a wetland plant community on the Chesapeake Bay. Plant Soil 210:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Miller WD, Neubauer SC, Anderson IC (2001) Effects of sea level induced disturbances on high salt marsh metabolism. Estuaries 24:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pezeshki SR, DeLaune RD (1997) Population differentiation in Spartina patens: responses of photosynthesis and biomass partitioning to elevated salinity. Bot Bull Acad Sin 38:115–120Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Simas T, Nunes JP, Ferreira JG (2001) Effects of global climate change on coastal salt marshes. Ecol Model 139:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lin Q, Mendelssohn IA, Henry CB, Roberts PO, Walsh MM, Overton EB, Portier RJ (1999) Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments. Environ Technol 20:825–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lindau CW, DeLaune RD, Jugsujinda A, Sajo E (1999) Response of Spartina alterniflora vegetation to oiling and burning of applied oil. Mar Pollut Bull 38:1216–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nyman JA (1999) Effect of crude oil and chemical additives on metabolic activity of mixed microbial populations in fresh marsh soils. Microb Ecol 37:152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pezeshki SR, DeLaune RD, Jugsujinda A (2001) The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants. Environ Pollut 112:483–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smith DL, Proffitt CE (1999) The effects of crude oil and remediation burning on three clones of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.). Estuaries 22:616–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Angradi TR, Hagan SM, Able KW (2001) Vegetation type and the intertidal macroinvertebrate fauna of a brackish marsh: Phragmites vs. Spartina. Wetlands 21:75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Connolly RM (1999) Saltmarsh as habitat for fish and nektonic crustaceans: challenges in sampling designs and methods. Aust J Ecol 24:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Riera P, Stal LJ, Nieuwenhuize J, Richard P, Blanchard G, Gentil F (1999) Determination of food sources for benthic invertebrates in a salt marsh (Aiguillon Bay, France) by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: importance of locally produced sources. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 187:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    SanLeon DG, Izco J, Sanchez JM (1999) Spartina patens as a weed in Galician saltmarshes (NW Iberian Peninsula). Hydrobiologia 415:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Waide RB, Willig MR, Steiner CF, Mittelbach G, Gough L, Dodson SI et al (1999) The relationship between productivity and species richness. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 30:257–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weinstein MP, Litvin SY, Bosley KL, Fuller CM, Wainright SC (2000) The role of tidal salt marsh as an energy source for marine transient and resident fin fishes: a stable isotope approach. Trans Am Fish Soc 129:797–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ensor LA, Stosz SK, Weiner RM (1999) Expression of multiple insoluble complex polysaccharide degrading enzyme systems by a marine bacterium. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Beale CV, Morison JIL, Long SP (1999) Water use efficiency of C4 perennial grasses in a temperate climate. Agr For Meteorol 96:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ansede JH, Friedman R, Yoch DC (2001) Phylogenetic analysis of culturable dimethyl sulfide producing bacteria from a Spartina-dominated salt marsh and estuarine water. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1210–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    deBakker NVJ, Hemminga MA, Soelen J (1999) The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica. Plant Soil 215:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hines ME, Evans RS, Genthner BRS, Willis SG, Friedman S, Rooney-Varga JN, Devereux R (1999) Molecular phylogenetic and biogeochemical studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2209–2216Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lee RW (1999) Oxidation of sulfide by Spartina alterniflora roots. Limnol Oceanogr 44:1155–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Norris AR, Hackney CT (1999) Silica content of a mesohaline tidal marsh in North Carolina. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 49:597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Burke DJ, Weis JS, Weis P (2000) Release of metals by the leaves of the salt marsh grasses Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 51:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Patra M, Sharma A (2000) Mercury toxicity in plants. Bot Rev 66:379–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Windham L, Weis JS, Weis P (2001) Lead uptake, distribution and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Mar Pollut Bull 42:811–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Reboreda R, Caçador I, Pedro S, Almeida PR (2008) Mobility of metals in salt marsh sediments colonised by Spartina maritima (Tagus estuary, Portugal). Hydrobiologia 606:29–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lewis MA, Weber DE, Stanley RS, Moore JC (2001) The relevance of rooted vascular plants as indicators of estuarine sediment quality. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 40:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lytle JS, Lytle TF (2001) Use of plants for toxicity assessment of estuarine ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Padinha C, Santos R, Brown MT (2000) Evaluating environmental contamination in Ria Formosa (Portugal) using stress indexes of Spartina maritima. Mar Environ Res 49:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Qin P, Xie M, Jiang YS (1998) Spartina green food ecological engineering. Ecol Eng 11:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sato G, Fisseha A, Gebrekiros S, Karim HA, Negassi S, Fischer M et al (2005) A novel approach to growing mangroves on the coastal mud flats of Eritrea with the potential for relieving regional poverty and hunger. Wetlands 25:776–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zanella D (2010) Seawater forestry farming: an adaptive management strategy for productive opportunities in Barren Coastal Lands. Doctoral dissertation, California State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dickenson M (ed) (2008) The old man who farms with the sea. Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, USAGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Entsch B, Sim RG, Hatcher BG (1983) Indications from photosynthetic components that iron is a limiting nutrient in primary producers on coral reefs. Mar Biol 73:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Smith SV (1984) Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment. Limnol Oceanogr 29:1149–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tyrrell T (1999) The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production. Nature 400:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Werner Koyro
    • 1
  • Helmut Lieth
    • 2
  • Bilquees Gul
    • 3
  • Raziuddin Ansari
    • 4
  • Bernhard Huchzermeyer
    • 5
  • Zainul Abideen
    • 4
  • Tabassum Hussain
    • 4
  • M. Ajmal Khan
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Plant EcologyJustus-Liebig University GießenGießenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Systems Research (USF)University of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization (ISHU)University of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization (ISHU)University of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  5. 5.Institute of BotanyLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations