Advertisement

Faded Grandeur: Disciplinary Differentiation, Interdisciplinarity and Renewal in the German Academic System

  • Richard Münch
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science book series (BSPS, volume 302)

Abstract

The chapter traces the productivity of German, or European, science vis-à-vis US science: the early dominance of European science had been inverted. This has given rise to an ineffective European focus on performance-measurements, rankings, performance contracts or financial incentive schemes.

The analysis of the German university is linked to the humanities. Because of their standing, and because of their ties to an educated elite, a homology between humanities and the social stratum carrying it is postulated. After WWII, this homology was pushed to the fringes while a diversified disciplinary spectrum failed to develop. Various disciplines are forced to follow a doctrine “large is beautiful”. However, top-down reform efforts, initiated at European or national levels, remain ineffective; and higher education remains deficient as long as structural deficits are perpetuated.

Keywords

Disciplinary Differentiation Cultural Science Excellence Initiative Social Closure Cognitive Closure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ash, M. G., ed. 1997. Mythos Humboldt: Vergangenheit und Zukunft der deutschen Universitäten. Wien: Böhlau. Google Scholar
  2. Ash, M. G. 2008. From Humboldt to Bologna: history as discourse in higher education reform debates in German-speaking Europe. In Education and the knowledge-based economy in Europe, eds. B. Jessop, N. Fairclough, and R. Wodak, 41–61. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, Chap. 2 Google Scholar
  3. Ben-David, J. 1977a. Centers of learning: Britain, France, Germany, United States. New York/New Jersey: McGraw-Hill/Transaction Publishers. Google Scholar
  4. Ben-David, J. 1984/1971. The scientist’s role in society: a comparative analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  5. Ben-David, J., and A. Zloczower. 1962. Universities and academic systems in modern societies. European Journal of Sociology 3: 45–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berghoff, S., G. Federkeil, P. Giebisch, C.-D. Hochmeister, M. Hennings, and D. Müller-Böling. 2005. Das CHE Forschungsranking deutscher Universitäten 2005. Arbeitspapier Nr. 70. Google Scholar
  7. Berghoff, S., G. Federkeil, P. Giebisch, C.-D. Hochmeister, M. Hennings, and D. Müller-Böling. 2006. Das CHE Forschungsranking deutscher Universitäten 2006. Berlin: Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung. Google Scholar
  8. Billaut, J.-C., D. Bouyssou, and P. Vincke. 2010. Should you believe in the Shanghai ranking? An MCDM view. Scientometrics 84: 237–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruch, R. 1997. A slow farewell to Humboldt? Stages in the history of German universities, 1810–1945. In German universities—past and future: crisis or renewal? Policies and institutions—Germany, Europe and transatlantic relations, ed. M. G. Ash, 3–27. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Google Scholar
  10. Chen, K.-H., and D. Morley, eds. 1996. Stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies (Comedia). London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  11. Clark, B. R. 2007. Diversification, competitive autonomy, and institutional initiative in higher education systems. In Herbst (2007), 37–41, Chap. 4. Google Scholar
  12. Clark, B. R. 1998. Creating entrepreneurial universities: organizational pathways of transformation. Elmsford: Pergamon. Google Scholar
  13. de Solla Price, D. 1963. Little science, big science. New York: Columbia University Press. Google Scholar
  14. DFG. 2007. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft—Förderinitiative Geisteswissenschaften 2002–2007: Abschlussbericht, Bonn–Bad Godesberg. Google Scholar
  15. Dilthey, W. 1968/1883. Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in den Geisteswissenschaften. Vol. 7 of Gesammelte Schriften. Stuttgart: Teubner. Google Scholar
  16. du Gay, P., S. Hall, L. Janes, H. Mackay, and K. Negus. 1997. Doing cultural studies: the story of the Sony Walkman. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Google Scholar
  17. Fiske, J. 1988. Television culture: popular pleasures and politics. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  18. Geiger, R. L. 2004. Knowledge and money: research universities and the paradox of the marketplace. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Google Scholar
  19. Gibbons, M., C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S. Schwartzmann, P. Scott, and M. Trow. 1994. The new production of knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Google Scholar
  20. Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243–1248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herbst, M. 2004. The production-morphology nexus of research universities: the Atlantic split. Higher Education Policy 17: 5–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Herbst, M. 2007. Financing public universities: the case of performance funding. Berlin: Springer. Google Scholar
  23. Herbst, M., U. Hugentobler, and L. Snover. 2002. MIT and ETH Zürich: Structures and cultures juxtaposed. Centre d’études de la science et de la technologie (CEST. 2002/9), www.swtr.ch.
  24. Hornbostel, S., and M. Sondermann. 2009. Personalrekrutierung in der Exzellenzinitiative. http://www.forschungsinfo.de/iq/agora/ExIn.asp.
  25. Jaeger, F., L. Burkhard, J. Straub, and J. Rüsen, eds. 2004. Handbuch der Kulturwissenschaften, vols. 1–3. Stuttgart: Metzler. Google Scholar
  26. Koppetsch, C. 2006. Das Ethos der Kreativen: Eine Studie zum Wandel von Arbeit und Identität am Beispiel der Werbeberufe. Konstanz: Uvk. Google Scholar
  27. Langewiesche, D. 2010. Die Humboldtsche Universität als nationaler Mythos. Zum Selbstbild der deutschen Universitäten in ihren Rektoratsreden im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik. Historische Zeitschrift 290: 53–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Max Planck Society. 2010. Förderung der Besten—das bewährte Harnack-Prinzip. http://www.mps.de/ueberDieGesellschaft/leitbild/excellencePrinzip/harnackPrinzip/index.html.
  29. Merton, R. K., and E. Barber. 2004. The travels and adventures of serendipity. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  30. Münch, R. 2007. Die akademische Elite: Zur sozialen Konstruktion wissenschaftlicher Exzellenz. Berlin: Edition Suhrkamp. Google Scholar
  31. National Science Board. 2008. Science and engineering indicators 2008, Vol. 1. Arlington: National Science Foundation. Google Scholar
  32. Parsons, T., and G. M. Platt. 1973. The American University. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  33. Pierson, P. 2004. Politics in time: history, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  34. Readings, B. 1997. The university in ruins. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  35. Rebenich, S. 2004. Die Erfindung der Großforschung: Theodor Mommsen als Wissenschaftsorganisator. In Geldgeschichte vs. Numismatik, eds. H.-M. von Kaenel, M. Radnoti-Alföldi, U. Peter, and H. Komnick, 5–20. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, Chap. 2 Google Scholar
  36. Ringer, F. K. 1990/1969. The decline of the German Mandarins: the German Academic Community, 1890–1933. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. Google Scholar
  37. Schelsky, H. 1963. Einsamkeit und Freiheit: Idee und Gestalt der deutschen Universität und ihrer Reformen. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Google Scholar
  38. Schimank, U. 1995. Hochschulforschung im Schatten der Lehre. Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag. Google Scholar
  39. Schloemann, J. 2007. Die Kommunikatoren. Ihr Jahr ist um—was machen die Geisteswissenschaften jetzt? Süddeutsche Zeitung. 63: 11 (December 12). Google Scholar
  40. Slaughter, S., and L. Leslie. 1997. Academic capitalism: politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar
  41. Slaughter, S., and G. Rhoades. 2004. Academic capitalism and the new economy: markets, state, and higher education. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar
  42. Statistisches Bundesamt. 1974. Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1974. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Google Scholar
  43. Statistisches Bundesamt. 1976. Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1976. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Google Scholar
  44. Statistisches Bundesamt. 2007. Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2007. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Google Scholar
  45. Statistisches Bundesamt. 2009. Bildung und Kultur. Personal an Hochschulen 2008, Vol. 11. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt, No. 4.4. Google Scholar
  46. The Nobel Foundation. 2010. Nobel laureats and universities. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html.
  47. Trow, M. 1970. Reflections on the transition from elite to mass higher education. Dædalus 90: 1–42. Google Scholar
  48. Trow, M. 1994. Managerialism and the academic profession: the case of England. Higher Education Policy 7: 11–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Trow, M. 2007. Reflections on diversity in higher education. In Herbst (2007), 15–36, Chap. 3. Google Scholar
  50. von Humboldt, W.. 1964a. Schriften zur Politik und zum Bildungswesen (1809–1834). Vol. 6 of Werke. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (Cotta). Google Scholar
  51. Wehler, H.-U. 1973. Geschichte als Historische Sozialwissenschaft. Berlin: Edition Suhrkamp. Google Scholar
  52. Wissenschaftsrat. 2006. Empfehlungen zur Entwicklung und Förderung der Geisteswissenschaften in Deutschland. Berlin, Drs. 7068-06 (27 Jan. 2006). Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sekretariat Lehrstuhl für Soziologie IIBambergGermany

Personalised recommendations