Advertisement

Sonic Characteristics of the Landscape

  • Almo Farina
Chapter

Abstract

The sonic characters of the landscape are important to better understand animal communication in a perspective of biodiversity conservation and to guide sustainable actions to achieve the well-being of humanity.

Weather conditions and climatic context in general have a great influence on the sonic environment, affecting the sound activity of vocal species. Wind depresses biophonies but on the other hand is a source of important information on atmospheric turbulence.

Most of the vocal species experience direct effects from changes in climatic and weather conditions, confirming the importance of the sonic ambience as an indicator of ecosystem modifications.

The structure of vegetation and its density are important drivers of sonic propagation. Vegetation interferes with sonic energy for effects of reverberation, absorption, and scattering.

In a forested landscape, sound propagation is strongly affected by ground effect, by the scattering from tree trunks and branches, and by absorption by leaves.

Wind-generated noise and animal-borne sounds are differently distributed when core and edge areas are compared.

The sonic characters of the landscape are important for better understanding of animal communication in a perspective of biodiversity conservation and to guide sustainable actions to achieve the well-being of humanity.

Weather conditions and climatic context in general have a great influence on the sonic environment, affecting the sound activity of vocal species. Wind depresses biophonies but on the other hand is a source of important information on atmospheric turbulence.

Most vocal species experience direct effects by changes in climatic and weather conditions, confirming the importance of the sonic ambience as an indicator of ecosystem modifications.

The structure of vegetation and its density are important drivers of sonic propagation. Vegetation interferes with sonic energy by effects of reverberation, absorption, and scattering.

In a forested landscape, sound propagation is strongly affected by ground effect, by scattering from tree trunks and branches and by absorption by leaves.

Wind-generated noise and animal-borne sounds are differently distributed when core and edge areas are compared.

The jungle environment represents a more spectacular example of sonic environment at the highest acoustic diversity. The dense vegetation, the complexity of the vertical layers of vegetation, high humidity, and the lack of wind create a unique system to which vocalizing species have been adapted for a long time.

Keywords

Sound Propagation Ground Effect Calling Song Syllable Type Song Repertoire 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albert DG (2004) Past research on sound propagation through forests. US Army Corps of Engineers, ERDC/CRREL TR-04-18Google Scholar
  2. Aylor D (1971) Noise reduction by vegetation and ground. J Acoust Soc Am 51(1):197–205Google Scholar
  3. Aylor D (1972) Sound transmission through vegetation in relation to leaf area density, leaf width, and breadth of canopy. J Acoust Soc Am 51(1):411–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Botero C, Boogert NJ, Vehrencamp SL, Lovette IJ (2009) Climatic patterns predict the elaboration of song displays in monckingbirds. Curr Biol 19:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briefer E, Oiejuk TS, Rybak F, Aubin T (2010) Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach. J Theor Biol 262:151–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burns SH (1979) The absorption of sound by pine tress. J Acoust Soc Am 65(3):658–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Embleton TFW (1963) Sound propagation in homogeneous deciduous and evergreen woods. J Acoust Soc Am 35:1119–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eyring C (1946) Jungle acoustics. J Acoust Soc Am 18(2):257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fonseca PJ, Revez MA (2002) Temperature dependence of cicada songs (Homoptera, Cicadoidea). J Comp Physiol A 187:971–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gibb JP, Breisch AR (2000) Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900–1999. Conserv Biol 15(4):1175–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grafe TU, Dobler S, Linsemair KE (2002) Frogs flee from the sound of fire. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:999–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huisman WHT, Attenborough K (1991) Reverberation and attenuation in a pine forest. J Acoust Soc Am 90(5):2664–2677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ingard U (1953) A review of the influence of meteorological conditions on sound propagation. J Acoust Soc Am 25(3):405–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Magal C, Schöller M, Tautz J, Casas J (2000) The role of leaf structure in vibration propagation. J Acoust Soc Am 108(5):2412–2418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martens MJM, Michelsen A (1981) Absorption of acoustic energy by plants leaves. J Acoust Soc Am 69(1):303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moller AP (2010) When climate change affects where bird sing. Behav Ecol 22(1):212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morgan S, Raspet R (1992) Investigation of the mechanisms of low-frequency wind noise generation outdoors. J Acoust Soc Am 92(2):1180–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Padgham M (2004) Reverberation and frequency attenuation in forests – implications for acoustic communication in animals. J Acoust Soc Am 115(1):402–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Price MA, Attenborough K, Heap NW (1988) Sound attenuation through trees: measurements and models. J Acoust Soc Am 84(5):1836–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sanborn AF, Maté S (2000) Thermoregulation and the effect of body temperature on call temporal parameters in the cicada Diceroprocta Olympus (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 125:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Slabbekoorn H (2004) Habitat-dependent ambient noise: consistent spectral profiles in two African forest types. J Acoust Soc Am 116(6):3727–3733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Snell-Rood E, Badayaev AV (2008) Ecological gradient of sexual selection: elevation and song elaboration in finches. Oecologia 157:545–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sueur J, Sanborn AF (2003) Ambient temperature and sound power of cicada calling songs (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Tibicina). Physiol Entomol 28:340–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Swearingen MS, White MJ, Guertin PJ, Mifflin JA, Onder TE, Albert DG, Decato SN, Tunick A (2007) Acoustic propagation through a forest edge. US Army Corp of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center, ERDC SR-07-03, Vicksburg, MS, USGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Almo Farina
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic Sciences and FoundationsUrbino UniversityUrbinoItaly

Personalised recommendations